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Botany II Plant Growth and Development


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Botany II Plant Growth and Development

Price: £340.00Course Code: BSC204
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Botany II Plant Growth and Development

Botany II Plant Growth and Development course online. Understand the principles and practices of plant physiology. This course is designed for those who need to know plants in-depth: how they grow, which factors promote their development and which factors hinders their growth. This course is for people that work or wish to work in the horticulture industry, nursery personnel, technicians, and researchers and science students wishing to further their knowledge in plant physiology.


Learning Goals: Botany II BSC204
  • Investigate the physiology of growth development and flowering.
  • Examine the nature of phytochrome and its effect on flowering in the phytochrome reaction.
  • Examine the photoperiodic responses of flowering plants to differing dark and light periods.
  • Examine the effect of temperature on the onset of flowering and flower development.
  • Understand and describe the causes of dormancy in seeds and plants and describe the methods of breaking dormancy.
  • Understand plant associations and competition and their effects on quality and marketable yield.
  • Explain the process of respiration in plant cells and its effect on post-harvest storage and transportation of crops.
  • Describe physiological processes in post-harvest crops in relation to the storage conditions.
  • Investigate the effect on plants of endogenous and synthetic growth regulators.
  • Understand risk assessments relevant to plant growth manipulation.


Lesson Structure: Botany II BSC204

There are 10 lessons:

1 Flower physiology

  • Introduction
  • The flowering response
  • Genes control flowering
  • Physiological age
  • Minimum leaf number
  • Photoperiodism
  • Terminology

2  Phytochrome

  • Light sensing systems
  • Blue light responses
  • Red light responses
  • Other light responses
  • Phytochrome
  • Photoreceptor forms: Pr, Pfr
  • How molelcules changeRelevance to commercial horticulture
  • Controlling light
  • Terminology

3  Photoperiodism

  • Light
  • Measuring light
  • What wavelengths do plants need
  • Typical photoperiod responses
  • Photoperiodic responses in seasonal flowering plants
  • Photoperiodic classification of plants: short day plants, long day plants, day neutral plants
  • Detection of photoperiod
  • Critical photoperiod and flowering
  • Research facts
  • Other photoperiodic effects
  • Terminology

4  Control of flower bud initiation and development

  • Stages in flower bud growth
  • What can affect flower bud initiation
  • Differentiation
  • Dvelopment
  • Anthesis
  • Effect of temperature on growth and flowering
  • VernalisationThermoperiodism
  • Research reports or reviews of specific plants
  • Terminology

5  Dormancy

  • Dormancy in plants
  • Abscisic acid and dormancy
  • Breaking dormancy
  • Dormancy in seeds
  • Factors affecting seed dormancy
  • Breaking seed dormancy
  • Terminology

6  Effects of plant associations and competition

  • Introduction
  • Competition
  • Parasitism
  • Coevolution
  • Mutualism
  • Plant herbivore and pathogen interactions
  • Crop spacing and crop yeilds
  • Crop canopy and plant density
  • Impact of weeds
  • Protected environments
  • Greenhouses
  • Shadehouses

7  Respiration and post harvest physiology

  • Respiration
  • Glycolysis
  • Aerobic respiration
  • Anaerobic respiration
  • Bioluminescene and Fluorescence
  • Post harvest respiration
  • Terminology

8  Post harvest storage, transport, retailing and shelf life

  • Effect of growing conditions on post harvest life
  • Controlled storage conditions: temperature, atmosphere, humidity
  • Normal atmospheric conditions
  • Controlled and modified atmospheres
  • Effect of oxygen levels Effect of carbon dioxide levels
  • Ethylene
  • Controlling ethylene levels
  • Modified Atmosphere Packaging
  • Commodity transport
  • Retailing and shelf life

9 Endogenous and synthetic growth regulators

  • Nature of plant hormones
  • Auxins: IAA, IBA, NAA
  • Gibberellins: natural and synthetic
  • Cytokinins: over 130 different types
  • Abscisic acid
  • Ethylene
  • Other homones: anti auxins, growth inhibitors, growth retardants, defoliants, growth Stimulators, non standard hormones
  • Controlled ripening and degreening
  • Waxing

10 Risks involved with plant growth manipulation 

  • Commercial risks
  • Human health and safety risks
  • Plant pathology risks
  • Ecological risks
  • Genetic modification
  • Benefits
  • environmental hazards
  • Human hazards
  • Terminology
  • Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.


Your learning experience with ADL will not only depend on the quality of the course, but also the quality of the person teaching it. This course is taught by Susan Stephenson and Andy Patterson. Your course fee includes unlimited tutorial support throughout from these excellent teachers. Here are their credentials:


Susan Stephenson
BSc in Applied Plant Biology (Botany) Univ. London 1983.
City and guilds: Garden Centre Management, Management and Interior Decor (1984)
Management qualifications in training with retail store. Diploma in Hort level 2 (RHS General) Distinction. 



Susan Stephenson is a passionate and experienced horticulturist and garden designer. She has authored three books, lectures at 2 Further and Higher Education Colleges, teaching people of all ages and backgrounds about the wonders of plants and garden design, and tutors many students by correspondence from all over the world.

Susan studied botany at Royal Holloway College (Univ of London) and worked in the trading industry before returning to her first love plants and garden design. She is therefore, well placed to combine business knowledge with horticulture and design skills. Her experience is wide and varied and she has designed gardens for families and individuals. Susan is a mentor for garden designers who are just starting out, offering her support and advice and she also writes, delivers and assesses courses for colleges, introducing and encouraging people into horticulture and garden design.

Susan is a Professional Associate and exam moderator and holds the RHS General with Distinction. She continues to actively learn about horticulture and plants and (as her students will tell you) remains passionate and interested in design and horticulture.

She also supervised the Area Arboriculture Team and was Exhumations Officer€“ in charge of collecting discovered remains and arranging identification (if poss) and interment of same.



Andy Patterson
PGCE Biological Sciences; Doctor of Naturopathy (pending); Registered Nutritional Therapist; Permaculture Design Consultant (PDC); BSc(Hons) Ecology;



Andy has been a biology and science teacher since 2002, and a natural health therapist since 1998. His original degree was in Ecology and is well experienced in the Life Sciences generally, from biology, medicine and clinical sciences to horticulture, ecology and the environment. he divides his time between a therapy clinic; teaching, tutoring & lecturing. Andy is a passionate believer in the power of education to transform people’s lives, and gives 100% support to helping students achieve their goal. 

Andy has worked as a Biology lecturer in a number of post age 16 colleges, and 11-18 year age schools across the country during a 13 year career. This has included work as an Assessor for exam boards, 1 on 1 tutoring, working with small groups and whole classes. He worked on an award winning national Nuffield- STEM initiative using innovative educational techniques to develop sustainability awareness with KS3 school children. He has also managed a large vocational science area in a busy college and developed a successful Premedical curriculum which has helped many students on to successful medical careers


Excerpt From The Course


The stages from shoot to flowering can be broken into the following stages.


  1. Induction: biochemical changes that cause the vegetative bud to become reproductive
  2. Initiation: can be defined as the time that the plant is committed to bud development
  3. Differentiation: during this stage the individual parts of the flower form
  4. Development: growth of the flower parts
  5. Anthesis: the opening of the flowers


As mentioned in Lesson 1 shoots must progress past the juvenile phase into the (adult) vegetative phase and then on to the flowering phase.  The key point here is that seedlings cannot be induced to flower, the plant must have passed on to the adult phase in order to develop flowers.  


In order for the plant to be ready for flowering the apical meristem switches from vegetative to reproductive, this is known as induction. At this stage the plant is then susceptible to environmental variables that may induce flowering.  Once the apex has become a flower primordia the process is irreversible. The bud development cannot be reversed, however if conditions are unsuitable the bud may abort and the auxiliary buds will resume vegetative growth.


Examples of what can affect Flower Bud Initiation

Scientists have found many different things can affect the formation of flower buds, to a greater or lesser degree. Many of these factors may affect some types of plants and not others. Many of these factors interact with each other, sometimes in a positive way, and sometimes in a negative way. The following are a range of examples that can play a part in the stimulation of flower initiation:


  • Exposing apples to ammonium ions can cause more axillary buds to form on the main stem. (Duration of exposure appears unimportant with 1 day giving the same result as many weeks.
  • Dormant tulip bulbs took less days from planting to flowering when exposed to higher than normal levels of ethylene, and stored for a period at higher temperatures (20 degrees C)
  • The temperature during flower bud initiation affects the development of orchid buds into a flower.
  • The time for flower initiation in Freesias is affected by the average of soil and air temperatures. If soil and/or air temperature is increased, flowering is delayed. At 21 degrees C, the plant can remain vegetative.
  • Water levels during the day can affect flower initiation in tropical Carambola trees (Averrhoa carambola) by as much as 10%.
  • Flower initiation in Azaleas is an interaction between temperature and light. At 15 degrees celsius, Azaleas are day neutral, but at 20 degrees Celsius they are short day plants.
  • Annuals, Biennials & Perennials all appear to have the same mechanisms for flower initiation. Once the plant reaches maturity, vegetative meristem tissue is converted to floral tissue capable of producing flowers.


Differentiation requires N (nitrogen) and CHO from photosynthesis; it is also sensitive to temperature and shade effects.



Development of the flower buds at a successful rate and quality can be affected by the following:


  • Water availability
  • Temperature changes
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Defoliation
  • Injury
  • And inadequate chilling during dormancy for some plants



Conditions affecting the duration of anthesis have direct implication to cut flower harvesting and post harvest storage.  Additionally the stage of development or anthesis at which flowers are harvested can have impact upon their storage life.  Generally flowers harvested later in to their development will have a shorter shelf life.  The best stage to harvest flowers will depend upon many factors including the species, cultivar, and the market requirements.  It is of course possible to harvest flowers before anthesis due to the existence of special techniques which allow.

Course Info
Course Hours100
Recognised Issuing BodyTQUK - Training Qualifications UK, an Ofqual Approved Awarding Organisation.
Course CodeBSC204
Course PrerequisiteNo, start at anytime
Course QualificationLevel 4 Certificate in Botany II Plant Growth and Development
Exam Required?Finalised with exam\test
UK Course Credits10 Credits
US Course Credit Hours3 Credit Hours
Study SupportYou'll be allocated your own personal tutor/mentor who will support and mentor you throughout your whole course. Our tutors/mentors have been specifically chosen for their business expertise, qualifications and must be active within their industry. Tutors are contactable by e-mail, telephone and through our Moodle Student Support Zone online. Tutors are there to provide assistance with course material, discuss, explain and give advice and support throughout the whole programme. Their feedback is vital to your success.



Previous Customer Experiences with our Courses

"Fantastic Teacher. Well organised modules. Assignments force me to learn and research more so I can prepare well for exams. I really enjoyed studying via ADL.  I can now continue study at Ulster University which accept my certificate from ADL".    Level 4,  Advanced Certificate in Applied Science,  VSC001,  Stanislawa,  Poland.

Its with great pleasure I am announcing you my new job as 'Park Manager' for a 5 star hotel in Reunion Island.  Its definitely my courses with ADL (Botany, Agronomy and Tree for Rehabilitation) which were decisive for my nomination. Accordingly, my sincere thanks goes to all the ADL team.

"The course was a valuable learning experience as it provided me with the knowledge and understanding for me as a Careers Advisor. The feedback was very good from my tutor, and allowed me to  build upon my assignments that were marked. The comments were very informative  and very useful. Well written course material."  Andrew W, Careers  Counselling, UK

"It exceeded my expectations. It was more comprehensive than I expected and the assignments really stimulated deep study of the subject. Thank you for your guidance. I am delighted with my certificate and will recommend this course and ADL to my friends and colleagues."  G Flaherty, Ornithology BEN102, Ireland

"I want to thank you for  the course - Hotel Management- I've just finished now. The course was comprehensive and well edited. For sure it can give a new worker in the hospitality industry the basic theoretical and practical knowledge required".  Daniel K, Hotel Management, Romania

"Upon completing the Interior Plants Course I was offered my dream job.  Taking this class was one of the best decisions I've made, the information I received was invaluable.  Thank you ADL". Meg V,  Interior Plants, Florida, USA.

“I am delighted to report that I passed the exam and received a “Pass with Commendation”. I appreciate very much the detail that you went into, in the correction of my assignments  and I found your advice and extra subject information  invaluable in advancing my interest and knowledge in horticulture”.   Go raibh mile maith agat! (a thousand thanks!) Colin, RHS Cert II, Ireland

"Although my main interest in Earth Science is Geology I found this course excellent. The course notes were very interesting and useful throughout the course. Thank you to the ADL staff for their excellent service" Barry. Earth Science

"I received good feedback, and had an efficient turnaround of assignments, useful comments and grades to analyse." Andrew, Calf Rearing

"I enjoyed the course and developed a good understanding of learning and behaviour disorders. I feel this will be helpful in my role as a Clerk at a local primary school". The course met my expectations and I enjoyed the challenge of learning about conditions i knew little about. The presentation of the course and the opportunity to communicate with my tutor was valuable. I enjoyed the course so much , I am planning to do another! Jennifer C, Developmental Learning and Behavioural Disorders in Children and Adolescents, UK

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