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Botany II Plant Growth and Development 100 Hours Certificate Course


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Botany II Plant Growth and Development 100 Hours Certificate Course

Price: £325.00Course Code: BSC204
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Botany II Plant Growth and Development 100 Hours Certificate Course

Botany II Plant Growth and Development course online. Understand the principles and practices of plant physiology. This course is designed for those who need to know plants in-depth: how they grow, which factors promote their development and which factors hinders their growth. This course is for people that work or wish to work in the horticulture industry, nursery personnel, technicians, and researchers and science students wishing to further their knowledge in plant physiology.


Learning Goals: Botany II BSC204
  • Investigate the physiology of growth development and flowering.
  • Examine the nature of phytochrome and its effect on flowering in the phytochrome reaction.
  • Examine the photoperiodic responses of flowering plants to differing dark and light periods.
  • Examine the effect of temperature on the onset of flowering and flower development.
  • Understand and describe the causes of dormancy in seeds and plants and describe the methods of breaking dormancy.
  • Understand plant associations and competition and their effects on quality and marketable yield.
  • Explain the process of respiration in plant cells and its effect on post-harvest storage and transportation of crops.
  • Describe physiological processes in post-harvest crops in relation to the storage conditions.
  • Investigate the effect on plants of endogenous and synthetic growth regulators.
  • Understand risk assessments relevant to plant growth manipulation.


Lesson Structure: Botany II BSC204

There are 10 lessons:

1 Flower physiology

  • Introduction
  • The flowering response
  • Genes control flowering
  • Physiological age
  • Minimum leaf number
  • Photoperiodism
  • Terminology

2  Phytochrome

  • Light sensing systems
  • Blue light responses
  • Red light responses
  • Other light responses
  • Phytochrome
  • Photoreceptor forms: Pr, Pfr
  • How molelcules changeRelevance to commercial horticulture
  • Controlling light
  • Terminology

3  Photoperiodism

  • Light
  • Measuring light
  • What wavelengths do plants need
  • Typical photoperiod responses
  • Photoperiodic responses in seasonal flowering plants
  • Photoperiodic classification of plants: short day plants, long day plants, day neutral plants
  • Detection of photoperiod
  • Critical photoperiod and flowering
  • Research facts
  • Other photoperiodic effects
  • Terminology

4  Control of flower bud initiation and development

  • Stages in flower bud growth
  • What can affect flower bud initiation
  • Differentiation
  • Dvelopment
  • Anthesis
  • Effect of temperature on growth and flowering
  • VernalisationThermoperiodism
  • Research reports or reviews of specific plants
  • Terminology

5  Dormancy

  • Dormancy in plants
  • Abscisic acid and dormancy
  • Breaking dormancy
  • Dormancy in seeds
  • Factors affecting seed dormancy
  • Breaking seed dormancy
  • Terminology

6  Effects of plant associations and competition

  • Introduction
  • Competition
  • Parasitism
  • Coevolution
  • Mutualism
  • Plant herbivore and pathogen interactions
  • Crop spacing and crop yeilds
  • Crop canopy and plant density
  • Impact of weeds
  • Protected environments
  • Greenhouses
  • Shadehouses

7  Respiration and post harvest physiology

  • Respiration
  • Glycolysis
  • Aerobic respiration
  • Anaerobic respiration
  • Bioluminescene and Fluorescence
  • Post harvest respiration
  • Terminology

8  Post harvest storage, transport, retailing and shelf life

  • Effect of growing conditions on post harvest life
  • Controlled storage conditions: temperature, atmosphere, humidity
  • Normal atmospheric conditions
  • Controlled and modified atmospheres
  • Effect of oxygen levels Effect of carbon dioxide levels
  • Ethylene
  • Controlling ethylene levels
  • Modified Atmosphere Packaging
  • Commodity transport
  • Retailing and shelf life

9 Endogenous and synthetic growth regulators

  • Nature of plant hormones
  • Auxins: IAA, IBA, NAA
  • Gibberellins: natural and synthetic
  • Cytokinins: over 130 different types
  • Abscisic acid
  • Ethylene
  • Other homones: anti auxins, growth inhibitors, growth retardants, defoliants, growth Stimulators, non standard hormones
  • Controlled ripening and degreening
  • Waxing

10 Risks involved with plant growth manipulation 

  • Commercial risks
  • Human health and safety risks
  • Plant pathology risks
  • Ecological risks
  • Genetic modification
  • Benefits
  • environmental hazards
  • Human hazards
  • Terminology
  • Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.


The quality of this course is second to none, from the in-depth learning you will get to the expert individual mentoring you will receive throughout your studies. The mentors for this course are: 

Bunch of yellow roses

Susan Stephenson
BSc in Applied Plant Biology (Botany) Univ. London 1983.
City and guilds: Garden Centre Management, Management and Interior Decor (1984)
Management qualifications in training with retail store. Diploma in Hort level 2 (RHS General) Distinction. 

Susan Stephenson is a passionate and experienced horticulturist and garden designer. She has authored three books, lectures at 2 Further and Higher Education Colleges, teaching people of all ages and backgrounds about the wonders of plants and garden design, and tutors many students by correspondence from all over the world.
Susan studied botany at Royal Holloway College (Univ of London) and worked in the trading industry before returning to her first love plants and garden design. She is therefore, well placed to combine business knowledge with horticulture and design skills. Her experience is wide and varied and she has designed gardens for families and individuals. Susan is a mentor for garden designers who are just starting out, offering her support and advice and she also writes, delivers and assesses courses for colleges, introducing and encouraging people into horticulture and garden design.
In 2010, Susan authored a complete module for a Foundation degree (FDSC) in Arboriculture.
Susan holds the RHS General with Distinction. She continues to actively learn about horticulture and plants and (as her students will tell you) remains passionate and interested in design and horticulture.
Steven Whitaker course tutorSteven Whitaker
Diploma in Garden Design (Distinction) – The Blackford Centre, Gold Certificate of Achievement in Horticulture, Level 2 NVQ in Amenity Horticulture, Level 1 NOCN Introduction to Gardening, – Joseph Priestly College, BTEC Diploma in Hotel, Catering and Institutional Operations (Merit), Trainer Skills 1, & 2, Group trainer, Interview and Selection Skills – Kirby College of Further Education
Steven has a wealth of Horticultural knowledge, having ran his own Design and Build service, Landscaping company, and been a Head Gardener. His awards include five Gold awards at Leeds in Bloom, two Gold awards at Yorkshire in Bloom and The Yorkshire Rose Award for Permanent Landscaping. Steven has worked with TV’s Phil Spencer as his garden advisor on the Channel 4 TV Programme, “Secret Agent”. 
He is qualified to Level 2 NVQ in Amenity Horticulture and has a Diploma in Garden Design which he passed with Distinction. Steven’s Tutor and Mentor was the Chelsea Flower Show Gold Award-winning Garden Designer, Tracy Foster. He also works for a major Horticultural Commercial Grower in the field of Propagation and Craft Gardening. Steven lives in Leeds where he is a Freelance Garden Designer and Garden Advice Consultant. 


Excerpt From The Course


The stages from shoot to flowering can be broken into the following stages.


  1. Induction: biochemical changes that cause the vegetative bud to become reproductive
  2. Initiation: can be defined as the time that the plant is committed to bud development
  3. Differentiation: during this stage the individual parts of the flower form
  4. Development: growth of the flower parts
  5. Anthesis: the opening of the flowers


As mentioned in Lesson 1 shoots must progress past the juvenile phase into the (adult) vegetative phase and then on to the flowering phase.  The key point here is that seedlings cannot be induced to flower, the plant must have passed on to the adult phase in order to develop flowers.  


In order for the plant to be ready for flowering the apical meristem switches from vegetative to reproductive, this is known as induction. At this stage the plant is then susceptible to environmental variables that may induce flowering.  Once the apex has become a flower primordia the process is irreversible. The bud development cannot be reversed, however if conditions are unsuitable the bud may abort and the auxiliary buds will resume vegetative growth.


Examples of what can affect Flower Bud Initiation

Scientists have found many different things can affect the formation of flower buds, to a greater or lesser degree. Many of these factors may affect some types of plants and not others. Many of these factors interact with each other, sometimes in a positive way, and sometimes in a negative way. The following are a range of examples that can play a part in the stimulation of flower initiation:


  • Exposing apples to ammonium ions can cause more axillary buds to form on the main stem. (Duration of exposure appears unimportant with 1 day giving the same result as many weeks.
  • Dormant tulip bulbs took less days from planting to flowering when exposed to higher than normal levels of ethylene, and stored for a period at higher temperatures (20 degrees C)
  • The temperature during flower bud initiation affects the development of orchid buds into a flower.
  • The time for flower initiation in Freesias is affected by the average of soil and air temperatures. If soil and/or air temperature is increased, flowering is delayed. At 21 degrees C, the plant can remain vegetative.
  • Water levels during the day can affect flower initiation in tropical Carambola trees (Averrhoa carambola) by as much as 10%.
  • Flower initiation in Azaleas is an interaction between temperature and light. At 15 degrees celsius, Azaleas are day neutral, but at 20 degrees Celsius they are short day plants.
  • Annuals, Biennials & Perennials all appear to have the same mechanisms for flower initiation. Once the plant reaches maturity, vegetative meristem tissue is converted to floral tissue capable of producing flowers.


Differentiation requires N (nitrogen) and CHO from photosynthesis; it is also sensitive to temperature and shade effects.



Development of the flower buds at a successful rate and quality can be affected by the following:


  • Water availability
  • Temperature changes
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Defoliation
  • Injury
  • And inadequate chilling during dormancy for some plants



Conditions affecting the duration of anthesis have direct implication to cut flower harvesting and post harvest storage.  Additionally the stage of development or anthesis at which flowers are harvested can have impact upon their storage life.  Generally flowers harvested later in to their development will have a shorter shelf life.  The best stage to harvest flowers will depend upon many factors including the species, cultivar, and the market requirements.  It is of course possible to harvest flowers before anthesis due to the existence of special techniques which allow.

Course Info
How Do Our Tuition Fees Compare?Full time classroom based Further Education Courses - Approx. £5,000 per year - Part-time classroom based Adult Education Courses - Approx. £7.00 per hour - N.B. classroom tuition means you learn at the pace of the class. One-to-one private tuition - from £15.00 per hour - ADL one-to-one tution fees - From £340 per 100 Hour Course = Average of £3.40 per hour - N.B. one-to-one tuition is tailored to your own individual learning availability and pace.
Course StartBegin your learning at any time.
Course Prerequisite Botany I - N.B. our course levels are an indication of the depth of learning you should receive. They do not describe the level of difficulty.
Course Qualification (Study Option A)Endorsed Qualification from TQUK - Training Qualifications UK, an Ofqual Approved Awarding Organisation - Completed written assignments and final evaluation per course/module to be taken.
Course Qualification (Study Option B)Certificate of Attainment from ADL - Completed written assignments only - no final evaluation.
Comparative Credits InformationUK Course Credits: 10 - U.S. Credit Hours: 3 - when compared to regulated courses.
Course Duration and DeadlinesCourse hours given are a guide only. You will be encouraged to work at your own pace to learn as much as you can, with no assignment deadlines or end date by which you must complete your course by. You are in control!
Study SupportPersonal tutor/mentor support from industry relevant professionals throughout your whole course. Mentors are contactable by e-mail, telephone and through the Moodle online classroom. They provide assistance with your course material, plus discuss, explain and give advice when needed. They will also mark and grade your assignments, plus provide constructive and helpful feedback vital to your success.
Suitability for Self Employment and Small BusinessesOur courses are ideal for sole traders and small business owners and their staff. Customer confidence in what you can do will determine how successful you are in getting clients. Doing the job right using the correct knowledge and skills, leads to repeat business and referrals to friends, family and work colleagues. Completing one or more of our courses for the service you have to offer, will give you the tools to achieve this and grow your business.
Recognition of Your Course By EmployersWe aim to achieve the correct balance between your qualification being recognised and providing you with the in-depth learning, to empower you to succeed. If you can demonstrate that you have the level of knowledge and transferable skills necessary to an employer, you should stand out from someone who has only received a superficial understanding of what's required - Select study option A when enrolling, so an employer can check the status of the awarding organisation for your qualification on the Ofqual Register.
Recognition of Your Course By UniversitiesAs you will see on our Testimonials page, previous students have used their qualification from us to get into university. However each one will have its own entrance criteria and acceptance may also depend on your other qualifications and experience. We can approach up to three universities on your behalf with details of our course before you enrol, so you will know whether it will be accepted as part of their application process. Please complete our contact form and we will begin the process.
Designing Your Own QualificationBundle up your choice of related courses to form your own qualification. Our Advanced Certificates (4 courses), Diplomas (6 courses), Advanced Diplomas (8 courses) and Higher Advanced Diplomas (12 courses), are used to differentiate between the in-depth knowledge and skills you will acquire in your chosen area of study. e.g. Advanced Certificate in Turf Care Management, which includes individual courses: Turf Care, Sports Turf Care, Turf Repair and Renovation and Turf Grasses.
How Can I Enrol?Online by selecting your study option, learning materials, plus payment option and then clicking the Enrol Now button - By contacting us for an application form - By telephoning us on 01227 789 649 (International: 0044 1227 789 649). Lines open 9am till 5pm Monday to Friday, excluding Bank Holidays and between Christmas and New Year.
How Can I Get a Pro-forma Invoice for my Employer?Contact us with details and we will email your employer an invoice. We will need: employer's name, address, telephone number, email address and contact name. We will also require your name, telephone number, email address, date of birth and the course and code you wish to enrol for.

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Previous Customer Experiences with our CoursesWoman leaping to the next level in her career development

"Fantastic Teacher. Well organised modules. Assignments force me to learn and research more so I can prepare well for exams. I really enjoyed studying via ADL.  I can now continue study at Ulster University which accept my certificate from ADL".    Level 4,  Advanced Certificate in Applied Science,  VSC001,  Stanislawa,  Poland.

Its with great pleasure I am announcing you my new job as 'Park Manager' for a 5 star hotel in Reunion Island.  Its definitely my courses with ADL (Botany, Agronomy and Trees for Rehabilitation) which were decisive for my nomination. Accordingly, my sincere thanks goes to all the ADL team.

"The course was a valuable learning experience as it provided me with the knowledge and understanding for me as a Careers Advisor. The feedback was very good from my tutor, and allowed me to  build upon my assignments that were marked. The comments were very informative  and very useful. Well written course material."  Andrew W, Careers  Counselling, UK

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Disclaimer: Every attempt is made to ensure all information from the academy is accurate and that the student has attained the competencies taught in a course, at the point of their assessment. Beyond this point, the graduate is responsible to maintain their acquired competencies, and apply acquired knowledge and skills in a way which is appropriate to the unique characteristics of each application. This will release the academy from any liability, action and claims of whatsoever nature in connection with, or arising from any such information, instruction or advice, given by any student or ex-student, whether directions given during the course are followed or not.