Welcome visitor you can login or create an account.
ADL is a leading provider of Distance Learning, Home Study & Online Courses
Human Physiology II (Pre-Medical Program)

Disciplines:

Health & Medical Courses Online  Science & Technology Courses Online  Levels Courses Online  Professional Development Courses Online  Certificate Courses Courses Online 

Human Physiology II (Pre-Medical Program)

Price: £340.00Course Code: BSC111
reviews
View As PDFEmail This

Learning Methods

* Select your Study Option:


* Select your Learning Materials:
otipPlease select your how you would like to receive the course materials:




* Pay in Full or Select your Interest Free Payment Plan:


Add to Wish List
Contact us
( Benjamin, 14/09/2013 ) Q: Hello, having successfully completed the Human Physiology certificate course, are we able to use the suffix Dr.? Thank you
( 16/09/2013 ) A: Hello, This course is a short course of 100 hours and would provide you with a good foundation to go onto further anatomy study, it does not offer you anything more than this. For this reason you would not be able to use the suffix Dr. after completion of the course.
( ciara Passmore, 10/07/2013 ) Q: Hi, Is the Human Physiology II certificate recognised and accredited? Thanks, Ciara
( 12/07/2013 ) A: Yes, our course is accredited and recognised globally by the IARC. The Human Physiology II course is also part of our Pre-Medical Advanced Diploma which has been been carefully designed to meet the entry requirements needed to enter various medical schools around the world, including the Royal College of Surgeons who have reviewed, assessed and determined that the program to be an appropriate pre-medical qualification.

Ask a question

Note: HTML is not translated!

Human Physiology II (Pre-Medical Program)

Human Physiology II (Pre-Medical Program) course online. Learn a deeper understanding of human physiology. An advanced course that will develop further your understanding of the principles of physiology, examining functions of the cells, tissues and systems of the human body. Learn how our bodies maintain internal equilibrium and health while exposed to the most variable range of conditions, such as physical, psychological and environmental factors.

This course is included as a module in the Advanced Diploma in Medical Science (Pre-Medical), which has been endorsed by TQUK - Training Qualifications UK, an Ofqual Approved Awarding Organisation.The Advanced Diploma has also been approved by the Royal College of Surgeons in Bahrain, Ireland and Malaysia, meaning that the qualification can be used to support an application to attend Medical School in these countries (subject to applicants satisfying their other entrance criteria). It is also accepted by other universities around the world, some of which are listed below.

This course has also been accredited by the CMA - The Complimentary Medicine Association and ADL is listed as a "Best Learning Provider", on their website.


Prerequisite: Human Anatomy & Physiology BSC101 or equivalent


 

Learning Goals
  • Describe and understand the microscopic anatomical features of human cells
  • Review basic structure and form markings of the body and be able to name them.
  • Describe the significant systems and the structure of those systems of the body
  • Integumentary, Nervous, Cardiovascular and Renal Systems.
  • Describe the significant systems and the structure of those systems of the body. 
  • Endocrine, Immune and Reproductive Systems.
  • Describe the significant structures in specific compartments or parts of the body - body cavities.
  • Investigate the anatomy of the extremities - the arms and legs. This includes the bone, musculature and nervous tissue of the regions.
  • Describe the study of the structure of the body and the application of various forms of medical imaging.

 

Lesson Structure:    Physiology II (Human) BSC111

There are 9 lessons:

  1. Cellular Physiology
    • Menbrane transport
    • Simple passive transport
    • Facilitated passive transport
    • Active transport
    • Transcription, translation and post transcriptional modification
    • Cellular metabolism
    • Cellular energy production
    • Homeostasis
    • Homeostatic balance
    • Feedback system
    • Body temperature
    • Effect of temperature on enzymes
    • Adenosine triphosphate
    • Glycolysis
  2. Histophysiology
    • Muscle fibre: filament types
    • Muscle tissue
    • Spongy bone
    • Compact bone
    • Bone physiology
    • Bone tissue
    • Cartlidge
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Physiology of tissue
    • Nervous tissue
  3. Systems Physiology
    • Central and peripheral nervous systems
    • Somatic and autonomic nervous systems
    • Sensory, motor and integrated systems
    • General senses
    • The process of sensation
    • Special senses
    • Autonomic nervous system
    • Autonomic reflexes
    • Parasympathetic nervous system
    • Sympathetic nervous system
  4. Neurophysiology
    • Structure of the nervous system
    • Parts of a neuron
    • Classification of different neurons
    • Neuron function
    • Action potentials
    • Graded potentials
    • Synapses: electrical, chemical
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Neural circuits
    • Different functions of the brain
    • Homeostatic reflex arc
    • Spinal chord and spinal nerves
  5. Endocrinology
    • Functions of endocrine system
    • Actions of hormones
    • Hormone target cells
    • Anterior pituitary gland hormones
    • Actions of posterior pituitary
    • Actions of adrenal gland: cortex and medula
    • Pancreatic hormones
    • Thyroid gland
    • Parathyroid
    • Adrenal glands
    • Pancreas
    • Hormone receptors
  6. Cardiovascular Physiology
    • Heart function
    • Cardiac cycle
    • Heart muscle cell contraction
    • Blood vessels
    • Blood: regulation, erthrocyte physiology, leucocytes
    • Hemostasis
    • Lymphatic system
    • Blood flow
    • Gas transport
    • Arterial alveolar gradient
    • Oxygen transport
    • Factors affecting oxygen release by haemoglobin
  7. Immunology
    • Immune system structure
    • Lymphatic organs and tissues
    • Types of resistance
    • Non specific cellular and chemical defences: phagocytes, natural killer cells
    • The inflammatory response
    • Specific defence mechanisms
    • Humoral immunity
    • Antibodies
    • Antigens
  8. Respiratory Physiology
    • Respiratory epithelium
    • The lungs
    • Airway anatomy
    • Alveoli
    • Nasal and oral cavities
    • Larynx, trachea, bronchial tree
    • Function of respiratory system
    • Pulmonary ventilation
    • Lung volumes and capacity
  9. Renal Physiology
    • Urinary system
    • Blood and nerve supply
    • NephronsKidney functions
    • Remal processes
    • Glomerular filtration
    • Electrolyte and Acid base balance
    • Tubular reabsorption
    • Tubular secretion
    • Ureters
    • Urinary bladder
    • Urethra
    • Micturition proces
Practicals:
  • Cell Physiology - Study of the functions of cells
    • Chemical reactions
    • Homeostasis, feedback systems, homeostatic imbalances
  • Histophysiology - Study of the functions of tissues
    •  Bone - ossification, growth,
  • Negative feedback regulation of blood calcium
  • Articulation
  • Systems Physiology - Study of the operation of organ systems
    •  Integumentary
  • Skin - physiology, homeostasis, and body temp
    • Sensory, Motor, and integrative systems
  • Sensations and sensory pathways
  • Memory, wakefulness, and sleep
  • Special senses
  • Smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium
    •  ANS
  • Dual innervation and neurotransmitters
  • Parasympathetic/sympathetic
  • Neurophysiology - Study of the functional characteristics of nerve cells
    • Myelination
    •    Resting membrane potential, ion channels, repolarizatoin, impulse propagation
    •    Spinal Cord
  • Sensory/Motor
  • Grey/White matter
  • Reflexes, reflex arcs, and homeostasis
  • Spinal nerves
    •  Brain
  • Limbic system
  • Functions of cerebral cortex
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Endocrinology - Study of hormones and how they control body functions
    •   Mechanisms of homeostatic action
    • Glucocorticoid secreation (NE and E)
  • General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Cardiovascular Physiology - Study of the heart and blood vessels
    • Heart Blood Supply - Coronary arteries
    • Cardiac Muscle Contraction - EKG
    • Cardiac Output
    • Hemodynamics - volume, BP, Capillary exchange
  • Immunology - Study of the body defence mechanisms
    • Functions of White Blood Cells
    • Non specific resistance to disease immunity
  • Respiratory Physiology - Study the functions of the air passageways and lungs
    • Pulmonary Ventilation - pulmonary capacity
  • Renal Physiology
    • Study of the function of the kidneys. An advanced course on human physiology that will develop further your understanding of the principles of physiology, examining functions of the cells, tissues and systems of the human body. The course details how our bodies maintain internal equilibrium and health while exposed to the most variable range of conditions, such as physical, psychological and environmental factors.

A course designed for health therapists and all those working in health care that want or need to develop a deeper understanding of the human body processes and health maintenance.

 


 

Your learning experience with ADL will not only depend on the quality of the course, but also the quality of the person teaching it. This course is taught by Iona Lister and your course fee includes unlimited tutorial support throughout. Here are Iona's credentials:

Iona Lister
Licentiate, Speech and Language Therapy, UK, Diploma in Advanced Counselling Skills.

Iona has been a clinician and manager of health services for fifteen years, and a trainer for UK-based medical charities, focusing on psychosocial issues, mental health disorders, and also the promotion of communication skills for people in helping roles. She tutors and facilitates groups via workshops and teleconferences, and now specialises in Sight Loss. As a freelance writer, she contributes regular feature articles for magazines, has written five published books, as well as published courses relating to personal development and counselling skills.
 

Iona has also written published books, courses and articles across a wide range of subjects, mostly in the areas of health, counselling, psychology, crafts and wildlife.
 

She has drawn experience from clinical and managerial experience within the NHS as well as medical and humanitarian subjects. She has been a regular feature writer and expert panel member of a national magazine for six years.

Books include: A Guide to Living with Alzheimer's Disease (and associated dementias), The Psychology of Facial Disfigurement; a Guide for Health and Social Care Professionals, When a Medical Skin Condition Affects the Way you Look; A Guide to Managing Your Future, Facing Disfigurement with Confidence, Cross Stitch: A Guide to Creativity and Success for Beginners.
Courses written include: Mental Health and Social Work, Counselling Skills, Understanding and Responding to Substance Misuse, Journalling for Personal Development, Guided Imagery, Stress Management.
 

Current work includes: Tutor: Courses associated with Creative Writing, Counselling Skills, Psychology, Holistic Therapy, Certified Hypnotherapist and Hypnotension Practitioner. 
 

Facilitator of Teleconference Groups: Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) 
 

Trainer (Skills for Seeing): Macular Society 
 

Reviewer of Books/Information: Macmillan Cancer Support 

 

Fundraiser: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), Embroidery/Art Groups Facilitator, Board Member
 

Website Manager: The Strathcarron Project, Coordinator (Delaware & Tennessee) Human Writes

 


 

 

Excerpt from the course

Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system encompasses all neural structures outside the brain and spinal cord: the sensory receptors, peripheral nerves and ganglia and efferent motor ending.

Sensory Receptors

Sensory receptors are part of a sensory neuron that responds to change in the environment and stimuli (environmental change and surroundings). These changes can present in the form of sound, pressure, chemical and other various forms. Sensory receptors and sensory neurons are designed to become aware of the electrical energy of the outside stimuli and respond to it. Once the response occurs, the sensory receptor will then relay it back to the nervous system via graded potentials that in turn trigger nerve impulses along the afferent fibres on the way to the CNS. When the stimulus ceases, the body ceases to notice this due to the receptor potential being deactivated.

Peripheral Nerves and Associated Ganglia

The PNS is divided into sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) division. The nerves that carry the impulses both towards the CNS are sensory/afferent and nerves that carry impulses away from the CNS are motor/efferent. Peripheral nerves are classified as cranial or spinal nerves depending on whether they arise from the brain or spinal cord. Ganglia are neuron cell bodies that are associated with nerve fibres in the PNS. Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibres contain just the cell bodies of sensory neurons and are known as dorsal root ganglia.

Motor Endings

These are the motor endings that activate effectors by releasing neurotransmitters.

Cranial Nerves

There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves associated with the brain that pass through various regions of the skull. Cranial nerves are mixed nerves and have many different functions.

 

Sensory, Motor and Integrated Systems

In this section we look at how certain facets work together to carry out the basic functions of receiving sensory input, integrating, associating and storing information, and transmitting motor impulses that result in movement or secretion. It is through this functioning of systems that the body is able to communicate and relate with each other. It is necessary to have these in place so if we feel pain; we can react to alleviate the discomfort (for example, moving our hand away from a fire).

Sensation is being aware of a change in the environment, whether that environment is external or internal. Each type of sensation such as touch, pain, hearing and vision is called a sensory modality. Each specific sensory neuron carries information for that particular sensory modality. Neurons carrying information for touch can only transmit impulses for touch, not pain or hearing

General Senses

The general senses are made up of both somatic senses and visceral senses. Somatic senses are include tactile sensations which are touch, pressure and vibration, thermal sensations, warm and cold, pain sensations and proprioceptive sensations which is perception of both moving and non moving body parts. Visceral senses are information about internal organs.

The general or somatic senses begin in the receptors located in the skin (cutaneous) or embedded in muscles, tendons, joints and the inner ear (proprioceptive). Anaesthesia means without sensation and when it is used it blocks sensation within the body and between systems. The sensations from the somatic receptors then cross over to the opposite side in the spinal cord or brainstem before going to the thalamus.

There are two general pathways from sensory receptors to the cortex: posterior column pathway (discriminative touch and proprioception) and the spinothalamic (anterolateral) pathway (pain and temperature). This input is then integrated in the Central Nervous System which is then conveyed by the motor pathway to create a response. 

The integrative functions include such activities as memory, sleep and wakefulness, and emotional responses (limbic system). These functions are the subject of many studies and we are just beginning to understand the physiology and interdependency of these systems with the rest of the body. Of course we are aware when we have little sleep it can affect our emotional responses as well as our memory. 

The Process of Sensation

The process begins in a sensory receptor (either a specialised cell or in the dendrites of a sensory neuron). The sensory receptor responds to stimulus or a different change in the environment. Once the receptor is stimulated, they will convert energy into a graded potential. Importantly, each sensory receptor can only transduce its own particular type of stimulus.

Once the message is received, a particular region of the CNS will receive and integrate the sensory nerve impulse and then integrate it into the cerebral cortex. Different sensory impulses from each part of the body arrive in a particular region of the cerebral cortex, which interprets the sensation as coming from the stimulated sensory receptor. Therefore, you seem to hear with your ears, or feel pain in a certain bodily part, when in fact it is your brain telling you about the action as it responds to the message.

Adaption in Sensory Receptors:

Over a certain amount of time, the generator or receptor potential decreases if a stimulus is constantly maintained. The nerve impulses in the first order neuron therefore decrease and adapt to the ongoing stimulus and because of this, the perception of a stimulus may decrease or fade even though the stimulus does not change.

There are two different types of adapting receptors, rapidly adapting and slowly adapting. Rapidly adapting receptors adapt quickly to a change, such as touch, smell and pressure. Slowly adapting receptors continue to trigger nerve changes for the duration of the stimulus such as pain and body positions

Special Senses

Special senses include the sensory modalities of smell, taste, hearing, vision and balance. These are all necessary if we are to notice specific alterations and changes in our environments. These sensations all play a role in deepening the impact of our surroundings such as experiencing people, food, music, or a rose. And sensation can also have a great effect on our organ systems. Seeing a full buffet, especially when we are hungry, can start the whole digestive process. Hearing a beautiful song can relax our cardiovascular system by affecting the autonomic nervous system. 

Sense of Smell: Olfaction

The receptors for olfaction are known as bipolar neurons. These neurons are stored in the nasal epithelium with olfactory glands. Axons from olfactory receptors form the olfactory nerves which relay messages to olfactory bulbs.  These then transmit to the limbic system and temporal and frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex

Sense of Taste: Gustation

The gustatory receptor cells are stored in the taste buds. Dissolved chemicals known as tastants stimulate gustatory receptors by either binding to receptors attached to G-proteins in the membrane, or passing through ion channels. Gustatory receptor cells then produce receptor potentials which cause the release of neurotransmitter. This will then stimulate nerve impulses in first order sensory neurons. Gustatory receptor cells trigger nerve impulses in cranial nerves VII, IX and I. Signals also pass to the medulla oblongata, thalamus and cerebral cortex (parietal lobe).

Vision

Refraction of light on the cornea and lens reflect an image on the retina, which focus an inverted image on the central fovea on the retina. Transduction of light energy into a receptor potential occurs in the outer segment of both rods and cones. Receptor potentials in rods and cones decrease the release of inhibitory transmitters, which induces graded potentials in bipolar and horizontal cells. Horizontal cells transmit inhibitory signals to bipolar cells, bipolar and amacrine cells transmit excitatory signals to ganglion cells, which depolarize and initiate nerve impulses. Ganglion nerve impulses are then conveyed into the optic nerve II fibre, to the thalamus and from there to the cerebral cortex

Hearing

 Sound waves enter the external auditory canal, strike the eardrum and pass through the ossicle. They then pass through the vestibular membrane and scala tympani to increase pressure in the endolymph and vibrate the basilar membrane.  Hair bundles on the spiral organ are finally stimulated. These hair cells convert vibrations into receptor potentials which release a certain neurotransmitter which initiates nerve impulses into first order sensory neurons. Sensory axons which are located in the cochlear branch terminate in the medulla oblongata. They then pass to the inferior colliculus, thalamus and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex

Equilibrium

There are two different types of equilibrium, static and dynamic. Static is the maintenance of the position of the body (in general the head), usually the steady state of the body without movement and dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of the body position (head in general) in response to sudden movements such as turning, speeding up and slowing down.

 


 


  • Cell Physiology - Study of the functions of cells
    • Chemical reactions
    • Homeostasis, feedback systems, homeostatic imbalances
  • Histophysiology - Study of the functions of tissues
    • Bone - ossification, growth,
  • Negative feedback regulation of blood calcium
  • Articulation
  • Systems Physiology - Study of the operation of organ systems
    • Integumentary
  • Skin - physiology, homeostasis, and body temp
    • Sensory, Motor, and integrative systems
  • Sensations and sensory pathways
  • Memory, wakefulness, and sleep
  • Special senses
  • Smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium
    • ANS
  • Dual innervation and neurotransmitters
  • Parasympathetic/sympathetic
  • Neurophysiology - Study of the functional characteristics of nerve cells
    • Myelination
    • Resting membrane potential, ion channels, repolarizatoin, impulse propagation
    • Spinal Cord
  • Sensory/Motor
  • Grey/White matter
  • Reflexes, reflex arcs, and homeostasis
  • Spinal nerves
    • Brain
  • Limbic system
  • Functions of cerebral cortex
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Endocrinology - Study of hormones and how they control body functions
    • Mechanisms of homeostatic action
    • Glucocorticoid secreation (NE and E)
  • General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Cardiovascular Physiology - Study of the heart and blood vessels
    • Heart Blood Supply - Coronary arteries
    • Cardiac Muscle Contraction - EKG
    • Cardiac Output
    • Hemodynamics - volume, BP, Capillary exchange
  • Immunology - Study of the body defence mechanisms
    • Functions of White Blood Cells
    • Non specific resistance to disease immunity
  • Respiratory Physiology - Study the functions of the air passageways and lungs
    • Pulmonary Ventilation - pulmonary capacity
  • Renal Physiology - Study of the function of the kidneysAn advanced course on human physiology that will develop further your understanding of the principles of physiology, examining functions of the cells, tissues and systems of the human body. The course details how our bodies maintain internal equilibrium and health while exposed to the most variable range of conditions, such as physical, psychological and environmental factors.
    A course designed for health therapists and all those working in health care that want or need to develop a deeper understanding of the human body processes and health maintenance.
  • - See more at: /physiology-ii-human-bsc111&filter_name=Human%20Physiology%20II#sthash.44wZanEY.dpuf
  • Cell Physiology - Study of the functions of cells
    • Chemical reactions
    • Homeostasis, feedback systems, homeostatic imbalances
  • Histophysiology - Study of the functions of tissues
    • Bone - ossification, growth,
  • Negative feedback regulation of blood calcium
  • Articulation
  • Systems Physiology - Study of the operation of organ systems
    • Integumentary
  • Skin - physiology, homeostasis, and body temp
    • Sensory, Motor, and integrative systems
  • Sensations and sensory pathways
  • Memory, wakefulness, and sleep
  • Special senses
  • Smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium
    • ANS
  • Dual innervation and neurotransmitters
  • Parasympathetic/sympathetic
  • Neurophysiology - Study of the functional characteristics of nerve cells
    • Myelination
    • Resting membrane potential, ion channels, repolarizatoin, impulse propagation
    • Spinal Cord
  • Sensory/Motor
  • Grey/White matter
  • Reflexes, reflex arcs, and homeostasis
  • Spinal nerves
    • Brain
  • Limbic system
  • Functions of cerebral cortex
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Endocrinology - Study of hormones and how they control body functions
    • Mechanisms of homeostatic action
    • <
Course Info
Course Hours800
Recognised Issuing BodyTQUK - Training Qualifications UK, an Ofqual Approved Awarding Organisation.
Course CodeBSC111
Course PrerequisitePre-requisite: Human Biology IA - Human Anatomy & Physiology BSC101 or equivalent.
Course QualificationLevel 4. This course may be studied as a stand alone course or in conjunction with the Advanced Diploma in Medical Science.
Exam Required?Finalised with an exam/test
UK Course Credits10 Credits
US Course Credit Hours3 Credit Hours
Study SupportYou'll be allocated your own personal tutor/mentor who will support and mentor you throughout your whole course. Our tutors/mentors have been specifically chosen for their business expertise, qualifications and must be active within their industry. Tutors are contactable by e-mail, telephone and through our Moodle Student Support Zone online. Tutors are there to provide assistance with course material, discuss, explain and give advice and support throughout the whole programme. Their feedback is vital to your success.

                                                                             

 

Previous Customer Experiences with our Courses

"Fantastic Teacher. Well organised modules. Assignments force me to learn and research more so I can prepare well for exams. I really enjoyed studying via ADL.  I can now continue study at Ulster University which accept my certificate from ADL".    Level 4,  Advanced Certificate in Applied Science,  VSC001,  Stanislawa,  Poland.

Its with great pleasure I am announcing you my new job as 'Park Manager' for a 5 star hotel in Reunion Island.  Its definitely my courses with ADL (Botany, Agronomy and Tree for Rehabilitation) which were decisive for my nomination. Accordingly, my sincere thanks goes to all the ADL team.

"The course was a valuable learning experience as it provided me with the knowledge and understanding for me as a Careers Advisor. The feedback was very good from my tutor, and allowed me to  build upon my assignments that were marked. The comments were very informative  and very useful. Well written course material."  Andrew W, Careers  Counselling, UK

"It exceeded my expectations. It was more comprehensive than I expected and the assignments really stimulated deep study of the subject. Thank you for your guidance. I am delighted with my certificate and will recommend this course and ADL to my friends and colleagues."  G Flaherty, Ornithology BEN102, Ireland

"I want to thank you for  the course - Hotel Management- I've just finished now. The course was comprehensive and well edited. For sure it can give a new worker in the hospitality industry the basic theoretical and practical knowledge required".  Daniel K, Hotel Management, Romania

"Upon completing the Interior Plants Course I was offered my dream job.  Taking this class was one of the best decisions I've made, the information I received was invaluable.  Thank you ADL". Meg V,  Interior Plants, Florida, USA.

“I am delighted to report that I passed the exam and received a “Pass with Commendation”. I appreciate very much the detail that you went into, in the correction of my assignments  and I found your advice and extra subject information  invaluable in advancing my interest and knowledge in horticulture”.   Go raibh mile maith agat! (a thousand thanks!) Colin, RHS Cert II, Ireland

"Although my main interest in Earth Science is Geology I found this course excellent. The course notes were very interesting and useful throughout the course. Thank you to the ADL staff for their excellent service" Barry. Earth Science

"I received good feedback, and had an efficient turnaround of assignments, useful comments and grades to analyse." Andrew, Calf Rearing

"I enjoyed the course and developed a good understanding of learning and behaviour disorders. I feel this will be helpful in my role as a Clerk at a local primary school". The course met my expectations and I enjoyed the challenge of learning about conditions i knew little about. The presentation of the course and the opportunity to communicate with my tutor was valuable. I enjoyed the course so much , I am planning to do another! Jennifer C, Developmental Learning and Behavioural Disorders in Children and Adolescents, UK

More Reviews....


 

Contact Us
First Name:

Email Address:

Phone Number:

Enquiry:

Get an Information Pack

Other (write below)

Disclaimer: Every attempt is made to ensure all information from the academy is accurate and that the student has attained the competencies taught in a course, at the point of their assessment. Beyond this point, the graduate is responsible to maintain their acquired competencies, and apply acquired knowledge and skills in a way which is appropriate to the unique characteristics of each application. This will release the academy from any liability, action and claims of whatsoever nature in connection with, or arising from any such information, instruction or advice, given by any student or ex-student, whether directions given during the course are followed or not.