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Human Biology II
Human Biology II - Muscles & Movement 100 Hours Certificate Course
Learn About Human Biology II
Human Biology II - Muscles & Movement course online. Learn about human muscles and their movement. This course describes why humans see, touch, smell, taste and hear the world around us like we do. Practical examples show how our body is able to move and how to improve flexibility, performance and posture.
Get a better understanding of the operation of muscles and nerves, in movements and reactions observed in the body.
This course develops an understanding of the operation of muscles and nerves, in movements & reactions observed in the body. This course covers: nerves, the nervous system, motor skills, structure & function of skeletal muscle, muscular strength, endurance and flexibility.
Prerequisites: Human Biology IB or equivalent.
Lesson Structure: Human Biology II - Muscles & Movement BSC202
There are 8 lessons as follows:
1 How Nerves Work
- Structure of the Nervous System
- Cells of the nervous tissue
- Parts of a Neuron
- Classification of different Neurons
- Neuron Function
- Main anatomical features of Neurons
- How Muscles Work With Nerves
- Basic Body Functions
2 Nerves and Motor Skill
- The Nervous System
- Neural Circuits
- The Science of Motor Skills
- How Motor Skills Develop
- General Nervous System Physiology
- Homeostatic Reflex Arc
- The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
- The Parts of the Brain That Controls Motor Skills
- Central Sensorimotor Programs
3 Skeletal Muscle
- The Skeleton
- How bones are formed
- The Anatomy of Bone
- Fractures and Fracture Healing
- Types of Bones
- Joints of Bones
- The Skeleton
- Skeletal Muscles
- Smooth Muscle
- Striated Voluntary Muscle
- Cardiac Muscle
- The Relationship Between the Muscles and the Skeleton
4 Muscle Organisation
- The Muscular System: Tendons, Deep fascia, Epimysium, Perimysium, Endomysium, Fascicle, Motor neuron, Blood vessels, Sarcolemma, Muscle fibre
- A Simple Version of how Muscles Move
- Muscle Types: Smooth muscle, Striated Voluntary Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, Skeletal Muscle Types
- Summary of "Selected" Skeletal Muscles
5 Muscular Movement
- Human Muscular Movement
- How Do Muscles Move?
- How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement
- Origin and Insertion
- Group Actions
- Some Useful Definitions
- Muscle groups and movement: Facial Expression, Anterolateral Abdominal Wall, Breathing, Pelvic Floor, Hamstrings, Adductor Compartment of the Thigh, Feet, Shoulder, Arm, Hand
6 Muscular Development
- Muscular Bodily Function
- Energy Systems in the Human Body
- Sources of Energy in the form of ATP
- Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration
7 Muscle Flexibility
- Muscles and Flexibility
- Excitation-contraction of muscle: Action Potential, Neurotransmitter Release, Binding, Calcium Release, Filament Binding, Muscle Contracting
- Different Levels of Flexibility: Dynamic, Static-active, Static-passive
- Influences of Flexibility: Internal Flexibility, External Flexibility
8 Muscles and Posture
- Gravity Support
- Net Movement
- Benefits of Posture
- Postural Mechanisms
- Slow and Fast Twitch Muscles
- Muscle strength and length
- Nervous system feedback on the body's position in space
- Listen to your body
- Ergonomics: Furniture Design, Computers, Making a Change
Learning Goals: Human Biology II - Muscles & Movement BSC202
- Explain how nerves cause reactions in the human body.
- Explain how the nervous system affects motor skill performance.
- Explain the function and structure of skeletal muscle in the human body.
- Describe the organisation of muscle tissue in the human body.
- Describe the mechanics of muscular movement.
- Explain development of muscular strength and muscular endurance.
- Selecting muscular flexibility exercises.
- Explain significance of muscles to posture and general well being
Practical (Set Tasks)
- Draw a cross section of the spinal cord, and label the anatomical parts.
- Explain what happens when an electrical stimulus is sent along the central nervous system, by illustrating and labelling the reflex arc.
- Explain nerve to nerve synapses, during a specific body movement.
- Explain activity at muscle-nerve junctions, during the specific body movement.
- Explain how proprioceptors function, during the specific body movement.
- Explain processes which occur in the nervous system, when a specific muscle moves.
- Explain the functioning of the following different sensory receptors:
- Distinguish between the functions of the following different neuroglia:
- Ependymal cells
- Satellite cells
- Explain how the function of different parts of the brain affect different specific muscular movements in the body.
- Explain how a specific voluntary skill is learnt by the body.
- Explain the dampening affect, as exerted through the cerebellum.
- Explain how the body perceives speed through the nervous system.
- Explain the operation of tendons, during a specific movement of a limb.
- Compare the function of motor with sensory fibres in nerves supplying muscles.
- Compare differences in the structural characteristics of red and white muscle fibres.
- Summarise events occurring during muscular contraction, at a microscopic level.
- Explain how muscles of the hand move when you pick up a tennis ball.
- Prepare diagrams showing the muscles in the back which provide both support and movement for the spinal column.
- Explain the significance of these muscles to health, wellbeing and mobility.
- Explain the principle of levers related to an observed muscular movement.
- Explain the principle of moments related to an observed muscular movement.
- Explain muscular movements which occur in the observed subjects, when using three different types of exercise machines.
- Explain three different body movements, in terms of the action of different bones, muscles and nerves; including the movement of a limb in exercise, and the bending of the back, and one hand movement.
- Distinguish between isotonic, isometric, eccentric and isokinetic contractions.
- List ways how strength can be maintained and increased.
- List ways how endurance can be maintained and increased.
- Explain three different physiological changes which accompany increased strength.
- Explain the overload principle, related to muscular development.
- Explain biological processes in force to effect strength and endurance in an athlete observed and interviewed by you.
- Compare static and dynamic flexibility, in an individual observed by you.
- Explain the structural limits to flexibility, in three different people of different ages.
- List ways of developing flexibility in a specific individual.
- Explain the relationship between flexibility and aspects of performance in a specific case study.
- Develop an exercise program to develop/maintain flexibility for a person.
- Submit photos together with comments on the posture of each person you studied. Comment on the age, sex &, occupation of each of these people.
- How might posture affect general well being, including arthritis and back pain.
- Explain how muscles of the hand move when you pick up a tennis ball.
Assessment is based on a combination of completing all assignments and sitting for a final short one and a half hour exam, in your own location.
If you don’t cope well with exams then you may elect to undertake a project instead. This is a popular option.
In addition, most modules have a Set Task at the end of each lesson placed before the assignment. This is an opportunity to undertake practical work to help you acquire knowledge and skills and practical experience. This ADL feature is an added bonus not found at most online schools. Set Tasks are not required for assessment.
Some courses also have optional Self-Tests which are available on our online learning platform. These are not available by correspondence or by USB, and do not form part of your overall grade.
How our courses work
- Choose Your Learning Method
You choose how you would like to receive your course material, i.e., Online, USB or Correspondence. The choice is yours. You may also work on online or offline.
- Tutor Allocation
Every student is assigned their own dedicated tutor who is an expert in their subject area. They provide as much or as little individual contact as you require. You can contact your tutor whenever you need – your hours are not limited.
- Feedback and Assignments
Tutor Feedback is an essential component in helping you understand the subject matter. Tutor feedback is given in the form of notes written on the assignment. We encourage you to contact your Tutor where help with clarification and understanding of course material may be required.
Your assignments are located at the end of each lesson. You submit them for marking whenever you are ready. There is no time limit.
- Set Tasks and Self-Tests
Most modules have a Set Task at the end of each lesson before for the assignment. This is where you get the opportunity to undertake practical work to help you acquire knowledge, skills and practical experience. Many modules also have short Self-Tests.
Once all assignments have been completed you may then elect to sit for a one and half hour exam in your own location. If you prefer not to take the exam you do have the option to undertake a project instead.
Once the exam or project part of the course is completed, your Certificate is then processed. Please allow approximately 4 weeks for this.
- Design Your Own Qualification
ADL offers students the flexibility to self-design their own qualification – bundling together a combination of 100-hour modules into a qualification higher than a certificate.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Here is a list of the most often asked FAQ’s.
Q. Why should I enrol with the Academy for Distance Learning?
A. Here at ADL, our students are our priority – we treat everyone as a unique individual.
Q. Do I need to buy text books?
A. No, as each module has been written by highly qualified industry professionals. The content of the material is presented in such a way that text books are not required. However, if you require additional reading your tutor will be able to supply a list.
Q. What happens if I have to stop studying for a while? (eg. become sick, go on holidays, have a baby, move house, etc)
A. It’s OK to take a break and start up your study at a later point in time. Just let us know.
Q. Is there an age limit?
A. There is no maximum age limit. We do however, have a minimum age limit of 18 years. Below that age parental consent would be required.
Q. Are your courses up-to date?
A. Our courses are revised and updated on a rotation system.
Q. Do you have a Cancellation policy?
A. Yes. We have a cancellation policy that is fair and equitable. For further details please click here.
Q. Will I have any opportunity to engage with other students?
A. We have a Student Community group based on facebook! If you don’t have a facebook account already, you could make one just for talking with fellow students on the group.
Q. When can I enrol/start?
A. You may enrol and start at any time of the year – it’s all self- paced.
Q. Can I study from anywhere in the world?
A. Our courses are available to anyone, anywhere in the world from the comfort of your own home. The course content is relevant to any country, culture or economy.
Q. How long do I have to complete the course?
A. You complete the course at any time that is convenient for you.
Q. Completing a 100 hour module – how long will it take?
A. For some students a 100 hour module will take approximately to 3- 6 months to complete. Others take less time and some even longer.
Q. Assessment – how does it work?
A. For each 100 hour module you are assessed by assignments (at the end of each lesson) and a final one and a half hour exam (or you may elect to complete a Project, instead of sitting the exam) – the choice is yours – you sit for the exam in your own location.
Q. I don’t cope well with exams – what can I do?
A. You may elect to undertake a Project (set by your tutor) instead of sitting the exam. Projects are completed from your home and can usually take a couple of weeks to complete.
Q. If my assignment is not up to standard is there an opportunity to resubmit my work?
A. Yes –
Q. How many assignments do I need to complete for each module?
A. At the end of each lesson, there is an assignment – so if a course has say, 10 lessons, there would be 10 assignments.
Q. I am having difficulty attending workshops/industry meetings, what can be done?
A. If your course requires attendance at workshops, conferences, or industry meetings; alternative arrangements can be made in your country.
Q. What qualification will I receive?
A. For individual modules, you would be awarded a Certificate endorsed by TQUK (Training Qualifications, UK), providing you complete all assignments and the exam. If you just want to complete only the assignments and not sit for the exam or finish a Project, then a Letter of Achievement would be awarded. For more details on qualifications available please click here.
Q. Can I customize my diploma/higher qualification?
A. Not all educational institution’s certificates /diplomas meet everyone’s needs. The opportunity to Design Your Own Diploma at the Academy (subject to our approval) is an added bonus, not found at other colleges. You choose modules that you think will help you in achieving your goal.
Q. What do I get when I complete the course? Will I receive a transcript?
A. At the completion of all courses and providing all assignments and exam requirements have been met, you will receive your Award and a Transcript.
Q. Our tutors – who are they?
A. We appoint Tutors and require that they must be currently active in their industry, with at least 5 years’ experience in their chosen profession.
Q. Can I contact my tutor at any time?
A. Yes – you have unlimited access to your tutor via email through our Online Classroom. You can always leave a message with ADL requesting your tutor to contact you. You decide on how much or how little contact you wish to have.
Q. Practical work – How is this done?
A. To find out more about this part of the course please visit the section on How Our Courses Work here.
What your tuition fees include
- All Course Material via Online, USB or Correspondence
- Assignments Marked
- Professional Tutor Feedback
- Set Tasks - Practical Exercises to help you develop skills
- Self-Tests – multiple choice questions at the end of lessons in most modules
- Unlimited Personal Tutor Support – via our student classroom
- Committed and Friendly Admin Support – vital to your success
- All ADL Exam or Project fees (exception RHS exams)
- Qualification Certificate
- Official Transcript with assignment grades
- Student Manual
- Academic Writing course (optional - 10 hours only)
- Critical Thinking course (optional - 10 hours only)
- Job Seekers Careers Guide
- Study Tips on How To Study Better
- Career Counselling by ADL Staff
- CV Writing Help, Tips and Advice
There are no hidden extras
FAQ - RHS Theory Qualifications
If you require further details about any of the RHS industry recognised qualifications please, call one of our friendly RHS Course Advisors on +44 (0)1227 789 649 or email: [email protected]
Q: When can I Enrol/Start My RHS Course With ADL?
A: Anytime, Anywhere. There are no enrolment deadlines.
Q: I live Overseas. Can I Study From Overseas?
A: You can study any of the RHS theory qualifications overseas. All courses are offered in English. You will need to email RHS Qualifications direct to arrange sitting for your examination overseas.
Q: Is There a Time Limit for Completing an RHS Qualification?
A: At present there are no time limits. However, RHS is contemplating in the future, the introduction of course time-lines.
Q: Are There Any Entry Requirements (Pre-Requisites)?
A: The RHS Theory courses do not require prerequisites, previous experience or any knowledge of horticulture. You just need passion for all things horticulture.
Q: What Course Should I Start With First? I Am New To RHS Qualifications.
A: We highly recommend that you start with Level 2 – Principles of Garden Planning, Establishment and Maintenance.
Q: What Does ADL Course Material Include?
A: Includes Power Point Presentations, Videos and written course lessons.
Q: When Do Exams Take Place?
A: Exams are held on fixed dates in February and June of each year. You should register as a candidate at least 3 months before these dates, so please do not leave exam registration to the last minute
Q: Where Do I Take My Exams?
A: UK: You take the exams at the RHS Wisley Centre, located between Cobham and Ripley in Surrey or at other authorised RHS centres around the UK.
Overseas: please email RHS qualifications direct for centre information.
Q: Exam Pass Marks?
A: Module – pass 50%. Commendation 70%.
Qualification: 50% pass for all modules.
Commendation awarded for all modules.
Each question carries a value of 10 marks.
Q: I’m Not Happy With My Exam Results?
A: You have the opportunity to re-sit your exam at the next opportunity.
There are no restrictions on the number of re-sits you can take. The highest mark you achieve will remain.,