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Animal Breeding 100 Hours Certificate Course
Learn About Animal Breeding
Animal Breeding course online. Home Study/Online Courses., Become a brilliant breeder! Learn to plan an animal breeding program, incorporating genetic theory, breeding program management and practical aspects of daily husbandry practice. This online course is relevant to all animals, from pets to farm animals and horses to wildlife. You will receive personal guidance from high qualified and experienced scientists and practitioners.
Animal breeding can be anything from a serious hobby or part time business (eg. breeding and selling pets), through to a very serious and possibly highly sophisticated profession. This course provides an excellent starting point whatever level you plan to operate at.
Lesson Structure: Animal Breeding BAG301
There are 7 lessons in this course:
- Introduction to Genetics;
- Plant cells
- Animal cells
- Cell division – mitosis (asexual reproduction); meiosis (sexual reproduction)
- Genes – phenotype and genotype; homogenous and heterogenous
- The work of Mendel
- Sex determination
- Gene mutations
- Lethal genes
- Effect of the environment
- Hybrid vigour
- Genetics in agriculture
- Animal breeding programs
- Decide on your priorities
- Dual purpose animals
- Artificial selection
- Gene groups
- Domestic animals – Dogs, cats etc.
- Pure Breeding;
- Inbreeding – close breeding and line breeding
- Genetic effects of inbreeding
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Introduction to Cross Breeding;
- The effects of cross breeding in farm animals
- Genetic effects, phenotype effects,heterosis, and genotype effect
- Cross breeding in sheep
- Cross breeding in domestic animals
- Cross Breeding;
- Practical cross breeding
- Two breed or single cross
- Back cross or crisscrossing
- Cyclical crossing
- Rotational crossing
- Advantages of cross breeeding
- Reciprocal recurrent selection
- Breed societies
- Grading up
- Livestock Improvement;
- Performance Testing
- Sib Testing
- Progeny testing
- Relative breeding Values (RBV)
- Artificial insemination
- Synchroised heats
- Ova transplants
Learning Goals: Animal Breeding BAG301
- Explain genetic influence on the characteristics exhibited by animals.
- Explain the factors that interact with genes to produce nonconformity in animals.
- Develop procedures to select animals for a breeding program.
- Develop an animal straight breeding program.
- Develop an animal cross breeding program.
- Explain the commercial methods used to breed farm animals.
Practical (Set Tasks)
- Explain how genes control the inheritance of characteristics, using two specific examples of animal breeding.
- Distinguish between the phenotype and the genotype, of a specified farm animal.
- Distinguish between dominant and recessive gene pairs.
- Explain the differences in the function of chromosomes, of a specified fowl, when compared with a specified mammalian farm animal.
- Describe the linkage of gender with the expression of non-sex character traits, in a specified farm animal.
- Explain the role of mutation in animal breeding, including both positive and negative aspects.
- Explain the role of the environment in all factors which determine genetic expression in animals.
- Explain the relevance of hybrid vigour to breeding different animals, including; *chickens *pigs *sheep
- Explain heritability in different classes of livestock, including: * dairy cattle *beef cattle *pigs *sheep.
- Develop a set of aims for a breeding program, for a chosen farm animal.
- Develop a checklist of criteria for selecting animals in a breeding program for a specified type of farm animal.
- Explain natural selection, by giving an example of its application in a farm animal breeding program.
- Explain artificial selection in animal breeding programs, including: * it’s aims *the methods used.
- Explain genetic regression by giving an example of its possible occurrence in a farm breeding program.
- Design a checklist of factors to consider when purchasing breeding stock for a specified farm situation.
- Explain how an animal breeder in the learner’s locality selects animals from which to breed, for a commercial breeding program.
- Distinguish between different types of straight breeding, including: *close breeding *line breeding.
- Explain how a specified pure breed (ie. straight breed) is maintained.
- Compare the advantages and disadvantages of line breeding in a breeding program for a specified type of farm animal.
- Explain where it would be appropriate to use line breeding methods in animal breeding programs.
- Explain where it would be appropriate to use close breeding methods in animal breeding programs.
- Write a procedure for straight breeding of a specified type of animal.
- Differentiate between different types of cross breeding, including: *terminal cross *two breed cross *back cross *three breed cross *rotational cross.
- Explain the concept of ‘grading up’, as it relates to commercial animal husbandry.
- Evaluate ‘crossbreeding’ in an animal breeding program.
- Determine a commercial situation, in which crossbreeding may be justified.
- Explain the services provided by a specified Breed Society in cross breeding, on a specified farm.
- Write a procedure for cross breeding of a specified type of animal.
- Define breeding terminology
- Describe the breeding programs which use artificial insemination, synchronised heats and ova transplants.
- Explain the importance of synchronised heats to breeding animals.
- Describe two different testing methods, observed by the learner that are used for animal breeding programs,
- Evaluate the relevance of breeding methods, that are used on a specified property, to the stated aims of the property owner.
- Describe the husbandry procedures which may be carried out during the pregnancy of a specified animal.
- Describe husbandry practices which may be carried out during the birth of a specified type of domesticated animal, including: *routine husbandry procedures *emergency husbandry procedures
- Plan the management of a breeding program to maximise male breeding performance.
- Perform and record the birth of a specified animal.
At the end of each lesson their is an assignment which is submitted to the Academy to be marked by the Academy’s tutors and returned with relevant feedback, suggestions, and where needed, extra reading.
Your learning experience with ADLwill not only depend on the quality of the course, but also the quality of the person teaching it. This course is taught by Vicky Protopapadaki and your course fee includes unlimited tutorial support throughout. Here are Vicky’s credentials:
MSc (Distinction) Applied Animal Behaviour and Animal Welfare (University of Edinburgh), BSc Business Administration (University of the Aegean), Cert. Companion Animal Behaviour (University of Edinburgh ), Cert. Animal Use and Care (University of Prince Edward Island).
Vickys passion for animals led her to obtain her MSc in Applied Animal Behaviour and Animal Welfare, despite her having a background in business and management. Apart from her personal experience with animals, she volunteers at various animal shelters around Greece and has done research on feline behaviour at the University of Prince Edward Island in Canada and on primate behaviour at Edinburgh Zoo. She is currently researching PhD opportunities in the field of animal ethics and studying entrepreneurship for the purpose of creating her own charity for animal protection in Greece.
Excerpt from the Course
Inbreeding is the mating of animals of the same breed that are more closely related than the average of the breed. Over the years, an element of fear has developed over the dangers of inbreeding. The marriage laws for people are designed to prevent marriage of extremely close relations.
However, inbreeding does have its uses and it plays a large part in the establishment of some degree of uniformity in the breeds of livestock which are on farms today.
Inbreeding can be divided into two types:
Close breeding – the mating of father to daughter, mother to son or brother to sister. (Brothers and sisters have, on average, half their genes in common. Fathers and daughters or mothers and sons must have half the genes in common)
Line breeding mating half brother to half sister, half cousins, grandfather to grand daughter, cousin to cousin, or grandson to grand daughter
The Genetic Effect of Inbreeding
The genetic effect of inbreeding is that it makes more pairs of genes homozygous. If we look at the case of self-fertilising plants – after only twenty generations of mating, all the genes in the offspring will be homozygous. This means that there will be no recessives in the genetic make up of the plants. In the case of successively mating brother to sister over twenty years, 98.9% of the genes will be homozygous with very few recessives left in the genetic pool. The following table shows how, as generations of inbreeding pass, the percentage of homozygous genes increases.
Percentage of Homozygous Genes after the Stated Number of Generations of Inbreeding
|Self fertilised plants||50%||87.5%||99.9%||100%|
|Brother and sister||25%||50%||88.6%||98.6%|
Results of Inbreeding
By increasing the degree of homozygosity, inbreeding increases the chances that recessive genes will come together and be homozygous. Some of these recessives may control lethal detrimental characteristics. It is very important to understand that inbreeding does not increase the chances that they will come together.
Inbreeding does not uncover dominant genes because they always show themselves. However, it increases the degree of homozygosity among the dominant genes. Thus inbreeding can help to fix characteristics within a breed, but at the same time as fixing good characteristics it may help to fix bad ones.
On the surface it seems simple to cull animals showing the bad characteristics and to keep the good animals. However, many animals have a combination of good and bad points, making it difficult to select animals for culling. Also the cost of such a culling program in cattle, and even in pigs and sheep, would be prohibitive in most circumstances. As a result, close inbreeding is rarely practised.
The effects of inbreeding on quantitative (measurable) traits have been studied, especially in pigs. These studies have shown conclusively that increasing inbreeding produces a decline in those traits related to physical fitness. Examples of these traits include; fertility; viability and early growth rate. In addition, one generation of brother-sister mating will reduce litter size by one while three generations will reduce it by two.
Inbred animals within a specific inbred line are more likely to be alike genotypically than phenotypically for traits of economic importance.
Many pigs in highly inbred lines are quite variable in size and weight when slaughtered. Cross bred litters tend to be more uniform and more easily marketed. Much of this difference is due to the unfavourable way in which inbreeds react to their environment. This difference is due to the crossbred being better buffered against the adversities of the environment.
Some farmers still recommend inbreeding to fix characters in an outstanding strain. Inbreeding could, however, result in decreased performance and the strain could die out.
Furthermore, the farmer loses the chances of introducing new “good” genes if he restricts himself to inbreeding. It is a fact that crossing two members from different inbred lines can produce remarkably good, uniform animals. This is the basis of hybrid production in pigs and poultry.
To sum up, inbreeding in commercial herds has its value but must be carefully conducted and will be extremely expensive.
In the example of inbreeding diagram (following) I & J are full cousins. The result of crossing these two cousins is K. This is inbreeding, but it is not close breeding, nor is it true line breeding.
EBOOK TO COMPLIMENT THIS COURSE
A complete guide to caring for animals, designed for anyone involved in their day to day care, including farmers, pet owners and students.
By the Staff of ACS Distance Learning
Animal Health eBook course online.Animal welfare and wellbeing has become increasingly important in recent times and is a major social issue in developed countries.
“For the past 10,000 years, people all over the world have domesticated animals for various purposes. Some animals such as dogs and cats were domesticated as pets to provide company to humans. Livestock animals such as cattle and sheep were kept to provide products such as meat, wool or milk, or kept as working animals. No matter what the reason, animals and humans have been connected over an extended period of time.
Optimum health is essential to the wellbeing and longevity of all animals. It is the responsibility animal owners to ensure the welfare of the animals within their care. As part of the general care of animals, we need to be able to identify diseases. The first step in recognising diseases in animals is to understand when an animal is unwell. This generally requires three things: information on the history of the animal, a physical examination and specialized testing to identify the cause of the illness.”
Understanding Animal Health Issues
Preventing Disease and Injury
Inspecting for Health
Some Common Illnesses in Animals
An excerpt from the book:
“Animals can encounter various health problems including the following.
Viral Diseases- A virus is a parasite that must infect a living cell to reproduce. A virus is defined as any of various simple sub-microscopic parasites of plants,
animals, and bacteria that often cause disease and that consist essentially of a core of RNA or DNA surrounded by a protein coat. They are unable to replicate
without a host cell and are typically not considered living organisms.
Bacterial Diseases- Bacteria commonly enter a hosts body by invading a break (i.e. wound) in the skin, a membrane or wall. Often this “break” must occur in a specific part of an organ, for a particular type of bacteria e.g. Diphtheria can only enter through the tonsils, while pneumonia can only invade through the walls of the respiratory tract. Once inside a host, bacteria have to resist the defense mechanisms of the host. If the bacteria manage to overcome this system, they will then set about spreading infection by growing rapidly in the immediate tissues, blood or lymphatic fluid.
Bacteria cause injury in tissue by producing toxins or poisons. Some toxins are secreted into tissue while the bacteria lives (eg. tetanus), while others are only released when the bacteria dies or breaks up. Many bacterial diseases show an incubation period. This means that some time may elapse before the symptoms of the disease develops. Not all hosts show the same susceptibility to diseases.
Fungal Diseases- Fungal diseases are called mycoses. Veterinary medical mycology deals with fungal disease in both invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Fungal disease agents are widespread and can be isolated from a wide range of animals, from the soil and the environment. When fungi are suspected to cause animal disease, it is important to have criteria to distinguish infection, colonisation and contamination in order to reach a diagnosis. Some fungi are restricted to specific animals and others are found on a range of different animals. When making a diagnosis it is important to distinguish whether a fungus is actually the causal organism, or whether in is only a secondary factor.
Genetic Disorders- A genetic disorder is an illness caused by abnormalities in animals genome. Genetic disorders caused either by a different form of a gene called a variation, or an alteration of a gene called a mutation. Mutations may occur randomly or as a result of environmental exposure. Other genetic disorders are inherited.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disease These are conditions that are caused by a disturbance of normal metabolic functions. These disturbances can be caused by genetic drift, inadequate or incorrect nutrition and impaired nutrition utilisation. Metabolic diseases are any that disrupt normal metabolism (the process of converting food to energy within the cells). Nutritional diseases are nutritionally-based. Good nutrition supports a healthy immune system to ward off infectiousdiseases. Proper nutritional balances help keep the animal healthy. Nutritional imbalances may make the animal more prone to disease.”
Assessment is based on a combination of completing all assignments and sitting for a final short one and a half hour exam, in your own location.
If you don’t cope well with exams then you may elect to undertake a project instead. This is a popular option.
In addition, most modules have a Set Task at the end of each lesson placed before the assignment. This is an opportunity to undertake practical work to help you acquire knowledge and skills and practical experience. This ADL feature is an added bonus not found at most online schools. Set Tasks are not required for assessment.
Some courses also have optional Self-Tests which are available on our online learning platform. These are not available by correspondence or by USB, and do not form part of your overall grade.
How our courses work
- Choose Your Learning Method
You choose how you would like to receive your course material, i.e., Online, USB or Correspondence. The choice is yours. You may also work on online or offline.
- Tutor Allocation
Every student is assigned their own dedicated tutor who is an expert in their subject area. They provide as much or as little individual contact as you require. You can contact your tutor whenever you need – your hours are not limited.
- Feedback and Assignments
Tutor Feedback is an essential component in helping you understand the subject matter. Tutor feedback is given in the form of notes written on the assignment. We encourage you to contact your Tutor where help with clarification and understanding of course material may be required.
Your assignments are located at the end of each lesson. You submit them for marking whenever you are ready. There is no time limit.
- Set Tasks and Self-Tests
Most modules have a Set Task at the end of each lesson before for the assignment. This is where you get the opportunity to undertake practical work to help you acquire knowledge, skills and practical experience. Many modules also have short Self-Tests.
Once all assignments have been completed you may then elect to sit for a one and half hour exam in your own location. If you prefer not to take the exam you do have the option to undertake a project instead.
Once the exam or project part of the course is completed, your Certificate is then processed. Please allow approximately 4 weeks for this.
- Design Your Own Qualification
ADL offers students the flexibility to self-design their own qualification – bundling together a combination of 100-hour modules into a qualification higher than a certificate.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Due to our years of experience and wide range of online courses, here are a list of our FAQs and Answers asked by Students.
Q. Do I need to buy text books?
A. No, you are not required to purchase expensive text books for any of our courses, since each module has been written by highly qualified tutors and writers, and our courses are updated on a regular basis, adding new information, methods and knowledge. You are supplied with all “essential” references. Extra books are always useful though, especially for special projects. Tutors will advise you what to buy if you decide you would like to have extra reading material, but it is not essential. Check out our eBookstore if you’re looking for a starting point.
Q. What sets the Academy apart from other institutions?
A. A unique feature of our courses is that we combine knowledge of the subject matter with practical tasks (set tasks, found at the end of each lesson). So you get to do practical components in each lesson. The benefits of this approach are immense: – your skills and knowledge are developed to a much higher level not normally found at other distance learning institutions.
Q. How do the practical exercises (set tasks) work?
A. The practical component of each lesson can be in the form of : Field Research, Networking and Analysis, Conducting Surveys, Growing, Collecting, Photographing and Processes.
Q. Can I pay by instalments?
A. Yes, you can view all available payment options here.
Q. Are there any hidden costs?
A. There are no hidden extras – the tuition fee covers all course material, unlimited tutor support, assignment marking/feedback and any text books where specified and exams. The only extras are for the public examinations fees for the ICB Bookkeeping course and the RHS (Royal Horticulture Society) exams.
Q. Are your courses up-to date?
A. Our courses are continually updated. The course content is rapidly updated and improved without the red tape and bureaucracy experienced at other educational institutions.
Q. Do you have a Cancellation policy?
A. We have a cancellation policy that is fair and equitable. For further details please click here.
Q. What Recognition do you have?
A. The Academy for Distance Learning has various forms of recognition:
These include TQUK (Training Qualifications UK) – an Ofqual Awarding Organisation – ADL is an approved TQUK Centre.
IARC – International Approval Registration Centre, approved member. Accredited Training Provider for ICB (Institute of Certified Bookkeepers) and Approved Distance Learning Provider for the RHS (Royal Horticultural Society) and many more. Our graduates come from many parts of the world and have used our qualifications for successful employment and progression onto higher education. To view our full list of recognition and memberships please click here,
Q. Will I have any opportunity to engage with other students?
A. We have a Student Community group based on facebook! If you don’t have a facebook account already, you could make one just for talking with fellow students on the group.
Q. Why should I enrol with the Academy for Distance Learning?
A. Here at the Academy our students are our priority – we treat every student as a unique individual. This philosophy allows us to nurture those who are “slow and steady” learners rather than letting them fall through the cracks, while catering for those who are in a hurry to complete.
Q. Can I study from anywhere in the world?
A. Our courses are available to anyone, anywhere in the world from the comfort of your own home. The course content is relevant to any country, culture or economy.
Q. Completing the course- how long will it take?
A. Completion of modules varies from student to student. Many factors come into play such as work commitments and family life- there are always distractions. Some students work quicker than others. For a 100 hour module many students will take up to 3- 6 months, others take less time and some are even longer. It’s all up to you. There is no pressure to complete or deadline to finish. Naturally, longer courses will take more time.
Q. What learning formats are there?
A. Your enrollment comes with the Online Classroom study option by default. For a small additional cost you also have the options of USB or Correspondence.
USB: Your course is sent to you on a USB stick, so that you can carry it in your pocket. Ideal for those with unreliable internet connections. This option is an additional £5/module
Correspondence: You download the course content and then print your own copy to your requirements. You can then bind the lessons to suit your needs.
Q. Assessment – how does it work?
A. For each 100 hour module you are assessed by assignments (at the end of each lesson) and a final one and a half hour exam (or you may elect to complete a project instead of sitting the exam) – the choice is yours – you sit for the exam in your own location, or you can visit us in Canterbury, England to sit the exam if want to. Exam fees are included in the tuition fee you paid. You can read more about the examination process here. At the end of each lesson, there is an assignment. You submit it to the academy who then submits it to the tutor for marking, comments and feedback. Our policy is to have a grade for you within 5 to 7 days.
Q. How many assignments do I need to complete for each module?
A. At the end of each lesson, there is an assignment – so if a course has say, 10 lessons there would be 10 assignments. The number of lessons per module varies from module to module. See the course content from our website for further details.
Q. When do I have to hand in my first assignment?
A. There is no deadline for handing in the first assignment. Submit when you are ready. There are some students who hand in assignments within the first couple of weeks of enrolment – while there are others who submit their work 6 months later. It’s all at your own convenience to suit you. Everyone has different work and home commitments and we cater to these needs.
Q. I am having difficulty attending workshops/industry meetings, what can be done?
A. If your course requires attendance at workshops, conferences, or industry meetings; alternative arrangements can be made in your country; however, there may be an additional expense. We can appoint an appropriately qualified person anywhere to work through curriculum documentation supplied by us, to satisfy the requirements set down in a course.
Q. What qualification will I receive?
A. For individual modules, you would receive a Certificate (providing you complete all assignments and the exam). If you just want to complete the assignments only, then a Letter of Achievement would be awarded. For more details on qualifications awarded please click here.
Q. Is there a next level to progress to?
A. Yes – you can progress from one module to a combination of many modules and to higher qualifications i.e. Advanced Certificates, Diplomas and Higher Advanced Diplomas. Read more about course levels here.
Q. Can I customize my diploma/higher qualification?
A. Not all educational institution’s certificates /diplomas meet everyone’s needs. The opportunity to design your own diploma at the Academy (subject to our approval) is an added bonus, not found at other colleges. It’s a very popular option and widely used by many students. You quite simply choose the appropriate number of related modules needed to complete the qualification and submit them to us for approval as a custom diploma.
Q. What do I get when I complete the course? Will I receive a transcript?
A. At the completion of a 100-hour Certificate course and providing all assignments and exam have been completed, you will receive a Certificate and Transcript. The Transcript will list your GPA. Each 100-hour module is worth 3 credit hours.
Q. Do I have to sit for an exam?
A. Exams are optional but need to be undertaken in order to receive the Certificate or higher qualification. Exams are one and a half hours long. You appoint an adjudicator (subject to our approval) to supervise the exam. You sit for the exam in your own location. Its that simple.
Q. I don’t cope well with exams – what can I do?
A. If you feel you don’t cope well with exams you may elect to undertake a Project (set by the tutor) instead of sitting the exam. Many students prefer this option as they find researching the material for the project sharpens their research skills.
Q. If I don’t sit for the Exam do I still get a qualification?
A. If you don’t sit for the exam but complete the project alternative, you will still receive your endorsed qualification. If you don’t sit for an exam or complete a final project, providing you have completed all the assignments you will be awarded a Certificate of Achievement.
Q. Do I have to sit for the exam at the Academy?
A. No – whilst you are more than welcome to come to our location in Canterbury, U.K. and sit the exam in our classroom; the more popular option is to sit for the exam in your own location. You appoint an adjudicator to supervise the exam. Click here for more information on that process.
Q. Our tutors – who are they?
A. We only employ tutors who have are currently active in their industry with at least 5 years of real-world experience. Not only are they highly qualified but also experienced, knowledgeable, and professional- experts in their chosen fields from all parts of the world.
Q. Can I contact my tutor at any time?
A. Yes- you have unlimited access to tutors. We strongly encourage students to develop a dialogue with their Tutor. This is why we encourage students to submit their first assignment fairly quickly at the beginning of the course.
Every Academy student is assigned a tutor who supports you throughout your course and beyond. Your tutor is there to guide and facilitate your learning and provides as much or as little individual contact as you would like. When you submit your coursework the tutor will give you feedback that helps you develop your ideas and provides motivation. For those who do like to have interaction with other students, the ADL discussion forum connects you to students from all over the world.
Q. How do I contact my tutor?
A. You have direct contact with your tutor by email through the Online Classroom. Alternatively, you can write, fax, email, or phone the academy. Leave a message if your tutor isn’t available and they will phone, write or fax back; whatever suits you.
Q. If I don’t understand a question or a lesson may I contact the tutor?
A. You may contact a tutor as often as you like. There is no additional charge or restriction on this service. Contact can be made via the Student Zone, email, or by phone.
Q. Practical work – How is this done?
A. To find out more about this part of the course please visit the section on How Our Courses Work here.
What your tuition fees include
There are no hidden extras
FAQ - RHS Theory Qualifications
If you require further details about any of the RHS industry recognised qualifications please, call one of our friendly RHS Course Advisors on +44 (0)1227 789 649 or email: [email protected]
Q: When can I Enrol/Start My RHS Course With ADL?
A: Anytime, Anywhere. There are no enrolment deadlines.
Q: I live Overseas. Can I Study From Overseas?
A: You can study any of the RHS theory qualifications overseas. All courses are offered in English. You will need to email RHS Qualifications direct to arrange sitting for your examination overseas.
Q: Is There a Time Limit for Completing an RHS Qualification?
A: At present there are no time limits. However, RHS is contemplating in the future, the introduction of course time-lines.
Q: Are There Any Entry Requirements (Pre-Requisites)?
A: The RHS Theory courses do not require prerequisites, previous experience or any knowledge of horticulture. You just need passion for all things horticulture.
Q: What Course Should I Start With First? I Am New To RHS Qualifications.
A: We highly recommend that you start with Level 2 – Principles of Garden Planning, Establishment and Maintenance.
Q: What Does ADL Course Material Include?
A: Includes Power Point Presentations, Videos and written course lessons.
Q: When Do Exams Take Place?
A: Exams are held on fixed dates in February and June of each year. You should register as a candidate at least 3 months before these dates, so please do not leave exam registration to the last minute
Q: Where Do I Take My Exams?
A: UK: You take the exams at the RHS Wisley Centre, located between Cobham and Ripley in Surrey or at other authorised RHS centres around the UK.
Overseas: please email RHS qualifications direct for centre information.
Q: Exam Pass Marks?
A: Module – pass 50%. Commendation 70%.
Qualification: 50% pass for all modules.
Commendation awarded for all modules.
Each question carries a value of 10 marks.
Q: I’m Not Happy With My Exam Results?
A: You have the opportunity to re-sit your exam at the next opportunity.
There are no restrictions on the number of re-sits you can take. The highest mark you achieve will remain.,