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Propagation I 100 Hours Certificate Course
Learn About Propagation I
Propagation Online Course
In this is a foundation Propagation Online Course you’ll learn how to propagate plants and develop broad skills in this subject
Plants are propagated both sexually (from two parents eg. seed & spore) and asexually (from two parents eg. cuttings, grafting, layers, division). This course deals with the principles of propagation, and all of these methods; as well as materials and equipment. This is a module from the accredited RHS Diploma and provides credit toward IARC accredited diplomas offered by ADL.
“I learned lots of new things about plants and how to grow them, and I have gained a lot of confidence to try things out.” Paula R, Propagation 1 BHT108, UK
Lesson Structure: Propagation I BHT108
There are 10 lessons:
1 Introduction to Propagation
- Asexual and sexual propagation
- Aseptic Micropropagation, Runners, Suckers, Layering, Separation, Division, Grafting, Budding, Cuttings, Seed
- Genotype versus Phenotype
- Plant life cycles -phases of the sexual cycle; phases of the asexual cycle
- Annual, Perennial, Biennial Life Cycles
- Propagation Terminology
- Nursery production systems
- Operational Flow Chart for Seed Propagation
2 Seed Propagation
- Seed Sources
- Maintaining Genetic Identity of Seed -Isolation, Rogueing, Testing, Hand Pollination
- Hybrid Seed Production
- Storing Seed
- Types of Seed Storage
- Seed Biology -Endospermic, Non Endospermic
- Dormancy Factors Affecting Germination
- Germination Treatments -boiling water, stratification
- Seed Raising Technique
3 Potting Media
- Characteristics of Potting and Propagating Media
- Media derived from rock or stone
- Media derived from synthetics
- Organic Media
- Soil Media
- The UC System
- Chemical Charagteristics -eg. pH, Cation Exchange Capacity, Salinity, Conductivity
- Laboratory Testing of Media
- Physical Characteristics
- Potting Mixes
- Propagating Media
- Nutrition at the Propagation Stage
- Nutrition Management and Fertiliser Application
4 Vegetative Propagation I
- Reasons to propagate by cuttings
- Types -softwood, hardwood, semi hardwood, herbaceous
- Stem Cuttings, Tip, heel, nodal, basal
- Leaf and Leaf-bud cuttings
- Cane cuttings
- Root Cuttings
- Bulb Cuttings
- Hormone Treatments for Cutting Propagation
- Other Cutting Treatments; basal wounding, anti-transpirants, fungacides, disinfectants, mycorrhyza, etc
- Artificial Light for Propagation
- Cutting Propasgation Efficiency
- Rockwool Propagation
5 Vegetative Propagation II
- Care of stock plants
- Managing Watering
6 Vegetative Propagation III
- Budding and grafting
- Reasons for Grafting
- How a Graft forms
- Grafting Techniques; Types of Grafts
- What Plant to Graft on What
- Grafting Materials
- Root Grafting, Bench Grafting, Soft Tissue Grafting
- Establishing Rootstocks
- Tissue culture: Applications, Problems, Nutrient Media, Cleanliness, Growing Conditions
- Tissue Culture Procedures and Techniques
- Laboratory Requirements
- Biotech applications in Horticulture
7 Propagation Structures and Materials
- Growing in a Greenhouse
- Growing Structures: Types of Greenhouses, Cold Frames, Shadehouses
- Propagating equipment -Heaters, Bottom Heat, Misting, Light Control, Benches etc
- Managing a Greenhouse
8 Risk Management
- Nursery hygiene
- Risk assessment and management
- Safety -tools, equipment handling, electricity, etc
- Pest and Disease Management
- Environmental Problems and management
9 Nursery Management I
- Plant modification techniques
- Management policies
- Keeping Propagation Records
- Nursery Production Systems
10 Nursery Management II
- Nursery Standards: Cost Efficiency (Cost of Production, Profit, Sales Price), Quality Standards, Size Standards, Practical Exercise
- The Nursery Site: Size, Planning Restrictions, Site Characteristics, Location
- Designing Facilities in the Nursery: Administrative Offices, Circulation and Parking, Employee Facilities, Chemical Storage, Drainage Network, Production Areas, Storage Areas.
Learning Goals: Propagation I BHT108
- Develop an understanding of the scientific principles of plant propagation and knowledge of production systems used in propagation nurseries
- Understand the factors that influence seed germination and the techniques used in seed propagation
- Understand the components of potting media used in propagating plants
- Understand the techniques used to take cuttings, and the efficiencies in cutting production
- Understand layering, division and other vegetative propagation techniques, and the role of stock plants in vegetative propagation
- Understand the techniques used in tissue culture and budding and grafting plants
- Understand the equipment used in propagating plants
- Understand the importance of nursery hygiene, the risks involved in plant propagation operations and the importance of safe working practices
- Explain plant modification techniques and management policies in nurseries
- To develop an understanding of nursery standards, cost efficiencies, and site planning, establishment and development
Practical (Set Tasks)
- Test soils to determine characteristics which would be valuable to management of any given soil in a horticultural situation
- Identify sandy loam, silty loam, and clay loam soils by feel; and pH testing by soil indicator; and relate to plant selection
- Identify and sow a range of different types of seeds, in different situations, in a way that will optimise successful propagation.
- Propagate a range of plants using different vegetative propagation techniques
- Pot up and provide after care for a range of propagated seedlings and cuttings.
- Plant a range of (different types) plant material.
- Maintain the desired growth type and habit for a range of plants.
- Identify significant woody plants including: Trees; Shrubs; Groundcover; & Conifers
- Identify a range of significant plant problems including pests, diseases and others.
- Identify a range of non woody and indoor plants of horticultural significance.
- Conduct a risk assessment of a horticultural workplace to determine safe working practices and select appropriate personal safety clothing and equipment.
- You will visit and contact various sites involved in propagation (real or virtual), including relevant workplaces. Through these visits the student will develop an awareness of workplaces and practical applications of the subject.
Assessment is based on a combination of completing all assignments and sitting for a final short one and a half hour exam, in your own location.
If you don’t cope well with exams then you may elect to undertake a project instead. This is a popular option.
In addition, most modules have a Set Task at the end of each lesson placed before the assignment. This is an opportunity to undertake practical work to help you acquire knowledge and skills and practical experience. This ADL feature is an added bonus not found at most online schools. Set Tasks are not required for assessment.
Some courses also have optional Self-Tests which are available on our online learning platform. These are not available by correspondence or by USB, and do not form part of your overall grade.
How our courses work
- Choose Your Learning Method
You choose how you would like to receive your course material, i.e., Online, USB or Correspondence. The choice is yours. You may also work on online or offline.
- Tutor Allocation
Every student is assigned their own dedicated tutor who is an expert in their subject area. They provide as much or as little individual contact as you require. You can contact your tutor whenever you need – your hours are not limited.
- Feedback and Assignments
Tutor Feedback is an essential component in helping you understand the subject matter. Tutor feedback is given in the form of notes written on the assignment. We encourage you to contact your Tutor where help with clarification and understanding of course material may be required.
Your assignments are located at the end of each lesson. You submit them for marking whenever you are ready. There is no time limit.
- Set Tasks and Self-Tests
Most modules have a Set Task at the end of each lesson before for the assignment. This is where you get the opportunity to undertake practical work to help you acquire knowledge, skills and practical experience. Many modules also have short Self-Tests.
Once all assignments have been completed you may then elect to sit for a one and half hour exam in your own location. If you prefer not to take the exam you do have the option to undertake a project instead.
Once the exam or project part of the course is completed, your Certificate is then processed. Please allow approximately 4 weeks for this.
- Design Your Own Qualification
ADL offers students the flexibility to self-design their own qualification – bundling together a combination of 100-hour modules into a qualification higher than a certificate.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Due to our years of experience and wide range of online courses, here are a list of our FAQs and Answers asked by Students.
Q. Do I need to buy text books?
A. No, you are not required to purchase expensive text books for any of our courses, since each module has been written by highly qualified tutors and writers, and our courses are updated on a regular basis, adding new information, methods and knowledge. You are supplied with all “essential” references. Extra books are always useful though, especially for special projects. Tutors will advise you what to buy if you decide you would like to have extra reading material, but it is not essential. Check out our eBookstore if you’re looking for a starting point.
Q. What sets the Academy apart from other institutions?
A. A unique feature of our courses is that we combine knowledge of the subject matter with practical tasks (set tasks, found at the end of each lesson). So you get to do practical components in each lesson. The benefits of this approach are immense: – your skills and knowledge are developed to a much higher level not normally found at other distance learning institutions.
Q. How do the practical exercises (set tasks) work?
A. The practical component of each lesson can be in the form of : Field Research, Networking and Analysis, Conducting Surveys, Growing, Collecting, Photographing and Processes.
Q. Can I pay by instalments?
A. Yes, you can view all available payment options here.
Q. Are there any hidden costs?
A. There are no hidden extras – the tuition fee covers all course material, unlimited tutor support, assignment marking/feedback and any text books where specified and exams. The only extras are for the public examinations fees for the ICB Bookkeeping course and the RHS (Royal Horticulture Society) exams.
Q. Are your courses up-to date?
A. Our courses are continually updated. The course content is rapidly updated and improved without the red tape and bureaucracy experienced at other educational institutions.
Q. Do you have a Cancellation policy?
A. We have a cancellation policy that is fair and equitable. For further details please click here.
Q. What Recognition do you have?
A. The Academy for Distance Learning has various forms of recognition:
These include TQUK (Training Qualifications UK) – an Ofqual Awarding Organisation – ADL is an approved TQUK Centre.
IARC – International Approval Registration Centre, approved member. Accredited Training Provider for ICB (Institute of Certified Bookkeepers) and Approved Distance Learning Provider for the RHS (Royal Horticultural Society) and many more. Our graduates come from many parts of the world and have used our qualifications for successful employment and progression onto higher education. To view our full list of recognition and memberships please click here,
Q. Will I have any opportunity to engage with other students?
A. We have a Student Community group based on facebook! If you don’t have a facebook account already, you could make one just for talking with fellow students on the group.
Q. Why should I enrol with the Academy for Distance Learning?
A. Here at the Academy our students are our priority – we treat every student as a unique individual. This philosophy allows us to nurture those who are “slow and steady” learners rather than letting them fall through the cracks, while catering for those who are in a hurry to complete.
Q. Can I study from anywhere in the world?
A. Our courses are available to anyone, anywhere in the world from the comfort of your own home. The course content is relevant to any country, culture or economy.
Q. Completing the course- how long will it take?
A. Completion of modules varies from student to student. Many factors come into play such as work commitments and family life- there are always distractions. Some students work quicker than others. For a 100 hour module many students will take up to 3- 6 months, others take less time and some are even longer. It’s all up to you. There is no pressure to complete or deadline to finish. Naturally, longer courses will take more time.
Q. What learning formats are there?
A. Your enrollment comes with the Online Classroom study option by default. For a small additional cost you also have the options of USB or Correspondence.
USB: Your course is sent to you on a USB stick, so that you can carry it in your pocket. Ideal for those with unreliable internet connections. This option is an additional £5/module
Correspondence: You download the course content and then print your own copy to your requirements. You can then bind the lessons to suit your needs.
Q. Assessment – how does it work?
A. For each 100 hour module you are assessed by assignments (at the end of each lesson) and a final one and a half hour exam (or you may elect to complete a project instead of sitting the exam) – the choice is yours – you sit for the exam in your own location, or you can visit us in Canterbury, England to sit the exam if want to. Exam fees are included in the tuition fee you paid. You can read more about the examination process here. At the end of each lesson, there is an assignment. You submit it to the academy who then submits it to the tutor for marking, comments and feedback. Our policy is to have a grade for you within 5 to 7 days.
Q. How many assignments do I need to complete for each module?
A. At the end of each lesson, there is an assignment – so if a course has say, 10 lessons there would be 10 assignments. The number of lessons per module varies from module to module. See the course content from our website for further details.
Q. When do I have to hand in my first assignment?
A. There is no deadline for handing in the first assignment. Submit when you are ready. There are some students who hand in assignments within the first couple of weeks of enrolment – while there are others who submit their work 6 months later. It’s all at your own convenience to suit you. Everyone has different work and home commitments and we cater to these needs.
Q. I am having difficulty attending workshops/industry meetings, what can be done?
A. If your course requires attendance at workshops, conferences, or industry meetings; alternative arrangements can be made in your country; however, there may be an additional expense. We can appoint an appropriately qualified person anywhere to work through curriculum documentation supplied by us, to satisfy the requirements set down in a course.
Q. What qualification will I receive?
A. For individual modules, you would receive a Certificate (providing you complete all assignments and the exam). If you just want to complete the assignments only, then a Letter of Achievement would be awarded. For more details on qualifications awarded please click here.
Q. Is there a next level to progress to?
A. Yes – you can progress from one module to a combination of many modules and to higher qualifications i.e. Advanced Certificates, Diplomas and Higher Advanced Diplomas. Read more about course levels here.
Q. Can I customize my diploma/higher qualification?
A. Not all educational institution’s certificates /diplomas meet everyone’s needs. The opportunity to design your own diploma at the Academy (subject to our approval) is an added bonus, not found at other colleges. It’s a very popular option and widely used by many students. You quite simply choose the appropriate number of related modules needed to complete the qualification and submit them to us for approval as a custom diploma.
Q. What do I get when I complete the course? Will I receive a transcript?
A. At the completion of a 100-hour Certificate course and providing all assignments and exam have been completed, you will receive a Certificate and Transcript. The Transcript will list your GPA. Each 100-hour module is worth 3 credit hours.
Q. Do I have to sit for an exam?
A. Exams are optional but need to be undertaken in order to receive the Certificate or higher qualification. Exams are one and a half hours long. You appoint an adjudicator (subject to our approval) to supervise the exam. You sit for the exam in your own location. Its that simple.
Q. I don’t cope well with exams – what can I do?
A. If you feel you don’t cope well with exams you may elect to undertake a Project (set by the tutor) instead of sitting the exam. Many students prefer this option as they find researching the material for the project sharpens their research skills.
Q. If I don’t sit for the Exam do I still get a qualification?
A. If you don’t sit for the exam but complete the project alternative, you will still receive your endorsed qualification. If you don’t sit for an exam or complete a final project, providing you have completed all the assignments you will be awarded a Certificate of Achievement.
Q. Do I have to sit for the exam at the Academy?
A. No – whilst you are more than welcome to come to our location in Canterbury, U.K. and sit the exam in our classroom; the more popular option is to sit for the exam in your own location. You appoint an adjudicator to supervise the exam. Click here for more information on that process.
Q. Our tutors – who are they?
A. We only employ tutors who have are currently active in their industry with at least 5 years of real-world experience. Not only are they highly qualified but also experienced, knowledgeable, and professional- experts in their chosen fields from all parts of the world.
Q. Can I contact my tutor at any time?
A. Yes- you have unlimited access to tutors. We strongly encourage students to develop a dialogue with their Tutor. This is why we encourage students to submit their first assignment fairly quickly at the beginning of the course.
Every Academy student is assigned a tutor who supports you throughout your course and beyond. Your tutor is there to guide and facilitate your learning and provides as much or as little individual contact as you would like. When you submit your coursework the tutor will give you feedback that helps you develop your ideas and provides motivation. For those who do like to have interaction with other students, the ADL discussion forum connects you to students from all over the world.
Q. How do I contact my tutor?
A. You have direct contact with your tutor by email through the Online Classroom. Alternatively, you can write, fax, email, or phone the academy. Leave a message if your tutor isn’t available and they will phone, write or fax back; whatever suits you.
Q. If I don’t understand a question or a lesson may I contact the tutor?
A. You may contact a tutor as often as you like. There is no additional charge or restriction on this service. Contact can be made via the Student Zone, email, or by phone.
Q. Practical work – How is this done?
A. To find out more about this part of the course please visit the section on How Our Courses Work here.
Excerpt From The Course
Hardwood sawdust (e.g. from Eucalypts) should be composted before use. Some softwood sawdust should never be used because of highly toxic chemicals they contain. Pinus radiata sawdust has been successful for short term growing without composting (e.g. for propagation but not for growing a 6 month crop).
Most sawdust will undergo decomposition while the plants are growing if not composted first, and throughout that process, the decomposing bacteria will draw on nitrogen from the nutrient solution leaving the plants with a lack of nitrogen. Coarse sawdust has been used successfully in potting soils in Australia; fine sawdust is used by hydroponic growers in Canada, though fine sawdust has displayed problems when used in potting mixes in Australia. Cation exchange capacity is good, but not as high as in peat.
Peat moss is dug from swampy ground in cool temperate climates. It is the partially decomposed remains of plants (mainly mosses and sedges). The specific characteristics of peat can vary from one deposit to another though the following generalisations can be made:
- Peat has a high water holding capacity.
- Sphagnum peat generally has better aeration when wet than sedge peat.
- They are not totally free of nutrients. Some peat has a lot more mineral salts in them than others.
- Black peat, which is more highly decomposed, is not suitable for propagation at all.
- Peat is always acidic (sometimes as low as 4.00)
- All peat has a high pH buffer capacity
- They have a high cation exchange capacity
- Peat repels water when it dries out. Be careful to never allow the surface of the media to become completely dry.
Peat is useful as an additive to potting media to raise the cation exchange capacity, particularly in run to waste systems, though it will bring micronutrients to the system which could upset the balance of micronutrients supplied in the fertilisers. Only coarse grade, high quality peat should be used in hydroponic culture.
Coconut fibre is produced from the fibrous outer husk of the coconut. It is very similar to peat except that it is a renewable resource and is generally not acidic or saline.
Conservation Issues – Peat Moss
Extraction of peat, which is a rapidly diminishing resource, from peatbogs or peat lands has over the past few years become a world-wide environmental concern. Peat bogs support wildlife that is often rare, within a fragile environment. The horticulture industry in some countries has relied on peat resources for many years (the cost of which is gradually increasing as supplies diminish and extraction methods become more and more costly) as additives to potting mix and propagation media. Coir fibre – a renewable resource made from coconut fibre is becoming more established as a viable alternative to peat moss, in many instances.
THE U.C. SYSTEM
“The U.C. System of soil mixes, soil and plant treatments and handling operations has been developed since 1941 by the Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Los Angeles, to practically eliminate diseases caused by those organisms and factors which involve the soil. Growers have generally found that they can produce better plants faster, easier, and more dependably by the U.C. system”.
DISEASES among young plants are potentially a catastrophe. It is possible to grow plants for years, paying little attention to disease control, and have little trouble, however if you do get a disease problem, it can also destroy a large proportion of your stock in a very short space of time (even a day or two).
Disease can spread many different ways:
- By dipping cuttings in hormone or water
- Through irrigation or rain water
- Soil on the hose if it’s dropped on the ground
- Soil on the bottom of pots/trays
- On tools, clothes, shoes and workers’ hands
- Contaminated soil mixes or pots
- Infected plant material
A major concept in the U.C. system is to avoid disease by recognising where it comes from and stopping it ever being introduced into the nursery!
The essence of the U.C. system might be summarised as follows:
1. Use a U.C. system type soil mix (see below).
2. Good drainage is provided. This allows for a proper balance between oxygen and water to be maintained in the root zone.
3. Leaching – to remove salt build ups and disease organisms from the soil.
4. Sterilising soil (making it free of disease and weed seeds).
5. Good water (free of disease).
6. Frequent light fertilising (to maintain nutrient levels and replace any nutrient lost by leaching).
7. Disease-free plant material.
8. Cleaning containers (pots, trays etc. are dipped in a chemical such as bleach to kill disease).
9. Sanitation (general cleanliness is practised; benches are washed with chemical, tools dipped, workers walk through foot wash to clean boots, wash hands before work, etc).
FAQ - RHS Theory Qualifications
If you require further details about any of the RHS industry recognised qualifications please, call one of our friendly RHS Course Advisors on +44 (0)1227 789 649 or email: [email protected]
Q: When can I Enrol/Start My RHS Course With ADL?
A: Anytime, Anywhere. There are no enrolment deadlines.
Q: I live Overseas. Can I Study From Overseas?
A: You can study any of the RHS theory qualifications overseas. All courses are offered in English. You will need to email RHS Qualifications direct to arrange sitting for your examination overseas.
Q: Is There a Time Limit for Completing an RHS Qualification?
A: At present there are no time limits. However, RHS is contemplating in the future, the introduction of course time-lines.
Q: Are There Any Entry Requirements (Pre-Requisites)?
A: The RHS Theory courses do not require prerequisites, previous experience or any knowledge of horticulture. You just need passion for all things horticulture.
Q: What Course Should I Start With First? I Am New To RHS Qualifications.
A: We highly recommend that you start with Level 2 – Principles of Garden Planning, Establishment and Maintenance.
Q: What Does ADL Course Material Include?
A: Includes Power Point Presentations, Videos and written course lessons.
Q: When Do Exams Take Place?
A: Exams are held on fixed dates in February and June of each year. You should register as a candidate at least 3 months before these dates, so please do not leave exam registration to the last minute
Q: Where Do I Take My Exams?
A: UK: You take the exams at the RHS Wisley Centre, located between Cobham and Ripley in Surrey or at other authorised RHS centres around the UK.
Overseas: please email RHS qualifications direct for centre information.
Q: Exam Pass Marks?
A: Module – pass 50%. Commendation 70%.
Qualification: 50% pass for all modules.
Commendation awarded for all modules.
Each question carries a value of 10 marks.
Q: I’m Not Happy With My Exam Results?
A: You have the opportunity to re-sit your exam at the next opportunity.
There are no restrictions on the number of re-sits you can take. The highest mark you achieve will remain.,