ADL Blog | Real Learning Stories
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In order to be valid, an argument has to be based on evidence. For example, we might say:
“Tigers can produce milk…”
“Wildlife brings tourism…“
However, these are not valid arguments unless we give some evidence, or cite a source:
“… Since tigers are mammals and all female mammals can lactate for their young.”
“…Wildlife tourism brought £65 million net income to Scotland according to a report by the International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research (2010).”
Ad Hominem Attacks
So how do ad hominem attacks fit in?
Ad hominem in Latin literally means...
There’s a common myth that arguments which are valid always have a correct conclusion. The best Critical Thinking students know better. Invalid arguments can be correct, and valid arguments can be incorrect. Here are some examples:
Invalid argument with correct conclusion
IF: All cats have fur,
IF: Pingu is a cat,
THEN: Lassie the dog has fur.
If we didn’t like this argument, we could completely refute it. Imagine an alien from outer-space coming across this argument. They could say something like:
“This argument is invalid because it is illogical. There is no reason from the...
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye. Vision becomes blurred because the cataract interferes with sight, like a veil in front of the eye. Many individuals over 60 have cataracts and most of these can be treated successfully. The risk for cataracts increases as we age, but the average age for cataracts is dropping. Around one to two per cent of all cataract surgery patients are in their 30s or early 40s, but many young people are unaware that they already have a developing cataract.
The lens is a clear structure behind the iris, which is the coloured part of the eye. The lens helps to focus light on the retina...
You have spent lots of time researching, working hard to produce a top quality assignment that will be appreciated by your tutor. You have timed it well; your favourite TV programme is about to start, you have some tasty food waiting for you. It’s now time to submit that assignment and wait for a response. Hold it right there! Before you send off your assignment, save it carefully, and put it out of your mind for a short while. You will be glad that you did. Here are several reasons why:
1. Lots of concentration can make you tired, which can lead to mistakes. There may not be factual mistakes but being tired could result in...
Ever since the first caveman traded a shiny rock for the second cave man’s banana, money, and where it goes, have been the bedrock of civilization. Whether you trade in dollars, pounds, rubles or shiny rocks, a decent living can be had for anyone with the skills to follow the money.
For anyone with a head for finance or business, a job as a Bookkeeper can be an excellent undertaking. Knowing where an organization's money is going and understanding it is an essential skill that all of them, from a single trader just starting out to a global corporation,need. It’s also an important skill for decision makers within a company as...
With Easter here, we thought we'd take a look at some Easter foods from around the world. There are many rich traditions to explore and some traditions which seem to cross borders. Here are our favourites!
Hot cross buns are a delicious bread that is normally served toasted and buttered. It is traditionally made without dairy products, towards the end of Lent. Each part of the bun is tied to the religious Easter theme, from the cross on top of the bun representing the crucifixion of Christ to the spices used inside the bun representing the spices used during Christ's burial.
For some highly-academic learners in England and Wales, the path through education is simple and traditional. Students aim to earn at least five GCSEs when they are 16 years old. At 18 years old they can choose to earn three A-Levels grade A-E, and then they can choose to go on to university where they can earn bachelor degrees (grade 1st class – 3rd class) or diplomas (distinction-pass) at age 21-23.
However, for most learners, the path through education is not so traditional. Education is not compulsory after 16 years old (18 in England), and traditional UK universities and colleges keep raising their entry requirements and price...
Right now, learning has a bad rep. This is in part due to a few myths about learning (that it’s too hard, or only for young people, or too expensive), but it’s also partially because people no longer think of learning as powerful.
This hasn’t always been the case. King Solomon, known to Judaism, Christianity and Islam, valued wisdom above his riches, power and long life. The Greek philosopher, Aristotle, declared that human rationality was shared only with the gods. The medieval English scholar Aelfric of Eynsham claimed that humans were different from animals only if they improved themselves and learned. The French...